AS Level Edexcel Geography GLOBALISATION NOTES

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Geography ­ Going Global
What is globalisation?
Globalisation took off in the 1970's and is the
process by which people, their cultures, money,
goods and information can be transferred
between countries with few or no barriers.
International terrorism ­ globalisation creates a networked movement with a single
worldwide cause. Known as a globalised venture ­ capital firm that invests in promising
terrorist projects. Global `brand' with it becoming a business company. Money gets sent
all around the world along with knowledge ­ via the internet.
Glocalisation is making the most of the local market and adapting the product or service
to suit the local culture. Not always easy so firms employ a range of strategies. MTV has
done this by making MTV Arabia specialising in hip hop and cutting edge music.
Spreading MTV into the Middle East means expansion of the market. Consumers have
more choice. Additionally, jobs and wealth is created.
Impacts of Globalisation
Finance Global capitalism spread by TNCs, with greater turnovers
than the GDP of many individual countries ­ cheap labour to
supply America and Europe.
Trillions of dollars shared electronically.
Worldwide reduction in consumer prices.
Politics Companies e.g. news international influence peoples vote
and view on issues.
Expansion of international political organisations e.g. EU.
Loss of national identity.
Global trade barriers removed e.g. tariffs and quotas.
People Those with skills in management, finance and IT are moving
around the world to where they are most in demand.
Migrant labour is flowing to areas of higher wages and better
standards of living (remittance).
Culture Global tourism.
Increasingly inexpensive phone and internet connections.
Global village ­ common interests.
Music, TV and media spread European and American values.
Global groupings (not perfect groupings)
LDCs least economically developed countries. Poorest countries in the world. GNP is
very low and has hardly started to develop.
NICs/RICs newly/recently industrialised. Improved economy recently. Developing a
strong manufacturing base.

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G8, G8 +5, G20 eight most powerful countries in the world. E.g. Canada, France, UK,
USA. Meet annually to discuss global issues. Focus on agricultural trade.
OECDs organisation for economic cooperation and development. Richest/most
powerful economic organisations.
Ex-soviet states now independent e.g. Russia, Estonia, Ukraine.
Political groupings (TRADE BLOCS)
Political groupings trade freely. Agreements are drawn up that allow national boundaries
to be crossed by flows of goods, money and workers.…read more

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MERCOSU South America ­ Free movement 1994 treaty gave Pending
R March 1991. Brazil, of goods, wide economic Venezuela.
Argentina, services and status. Parliament Negotiate
Paraguay, people. Create 2006. Common with NAFTA.
Uruguay. continent wide market council.
free trade area.
Creation of
COMESA 1994 replaced They are an Working on the 20 countries.
preferential trade organisation of eventual elimination Council of
area. In 1981. Nine free of quantitative ministers. HQ
states e.g. independent restrictions and other in Zambia.
Madagascar, sovereign states non-tariff barriers.…read more

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Impact on environment:
Increased output ­ wasted surplus
Hedge less landscape
Pollution of land/water
Not all members benefit equally
KENYA Flowers and wheat
The Kenyan glower industry has been able to trade with the EU ­ low exports/low duty
on flowers. They can grow all year round.
If the low tariffs were stopped, farms would perish as small margins. Reduced duty ­
farms would not operate.
If low tariffs, economy would do very well and it would allow more effective trade.…read more

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Globalisation speeds up DTM.
Lee's model of migration states that for
migration to happen, intervening
obstacles have to be overcome.
Changing global groups
OPEC is a cartel of 12 Middle Eastern
countries. Having the raw material did not
necessarily make these countries rich.
Oil companies used to rise and lower
prices whenever. This reduced the
amount that producers received in taxes
and royalties.
If demand for oil rises, OPEC will demand
higher prices forming a cartel. The increase in production will prevent a sharp price.…read more

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Vertical integration ­ controlling/owning every stage
Economies of scale ­ expansion
MEANS banks provide finance
MOBILITY factors which help companies grow e.g. communications/transport
Reached £2.7 billion in 2006. 1250 overseas stores keeping 450,000 people employed.
Online shopping.
Diversified to one stop shopping e.g. financial services, food, clothes and DVD's.
Good for home country.
What are the impacts of TNCs on host nations?
Vietnam benefited as improvements in infrastructure, 4% total exports, improved
economic opportunities and standard of living.
Laws on working conditions e.g.…read more

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Global hub case study What factors have led to this What are the
region becoming switched on? challenges/inequalities that
still remain?
East China World trade organisation 2001. Farmers earn £1.50 for 12
Lots of foreign investment hours work. Gap between
which stimulated growth. rich/poor. Once free
Export processing zones. Open education/healthcare.
door policy ­ changed from Need makes more
communist to capitalist. expensive.
Healthy literate and skilled By 2015, resource use will
workforce. Massive population. be more than supply.…read more

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Sahel is vulnerable to drought. Very little loss of crops/livelihoods. Water
rain. Creeping hazard. Desertification. shortage. Malnutrition/famine.
Ground overworked. Water borne diseases.
social HIV in Malawi. No people to work. Cycle low life expectancy.
of poverty and aids. Orphans.
Economic Africa's debt burdens. A quarter of export starving children. No
earnings pay off debt. International development aid. Children and
monetary fund tries to ensure global bank vulnerable adults die. Little
stability. For every $1 received, $1.30 goes healthcare/education. Poor
to pay off debt.…read more

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Economic issues: Low GDP growth
Total investments less than 20%
Money goes back to Americans/Canadians
Social issues: Women who work live in shanty towns
Cost of living has risen but accommodation
still poor
Environmental issues: Pollution and sewage
10% of growth is needed to clean up
environmental problems
Geography ­ Going Global Roots
Why do we have a census?
A census is so important as it is the only survey which provides a detailed picture of the
entire population.…read more

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Minority groups 8%. large scale migration from
Segregation. 1950's onwards colonies. Maastricht treaty.
migration. Europeans came from EU. Job
shortage in the UK, inviting
people in. asylum seekers.
Use websites e.g. :
explaining the pattern of population change
population is constantly changing, there are inputs
and outputs.
Factors that influence population can be: social,
cultural, political, economic or demographic.
Before 1970's: post war baby boom. National
insurance. Treating illness e.g. TB. 1875 public health
act. Vaccination. Hospitals. Major improvements.…read more



Woah. Very useful :)

Mr A Gibson

Top, top quality notes for your folder. Get these included as part of your work and use the case studies here too. Brilliant notes for any exam board that includes globalisation.


Brill :) 


Amazing notes...Hopefully can get through these in the one month i have ;)

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