World at Risk Notes for Edexcel Unit 1 Geography

Im re-taking this unit and decided to make some notes for the Physical section: World at Risk. The notes are fairly thorough and have some good case studies on Africa and Antarctic, which are cumpolsary for the exam. Hope you find these useful - any feedback would be great !

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Geography Unit 1 Revision notes

World at Risk ­ Physical

Global hazards can be split into two groups ­ Hydro meteorological and
Geophysical hazards, which cause a number of disasters around the world.
Where people are already vulnerable because of poverty, high population
density, multiple hazard hotspots occur.

Climate Change…

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The Greenhouse Effect: is a natural process that warms the Earth's
atmosphere due to trapping of heat in that would otherwise be radiated back to
space

Enhanced greenhouse effect: is when there is a rise in the level of
greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which can lead to global warming…

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La Nina causes usually drought in California and heavy rainfall in
Australia
Hurricanes in the Atlantic are usually increased in La Nina years and
reduced in El Nino years.



Trends in social and economic impact of disasters:

In terms of deaths:

Since the 1970's there has been a downward trend…

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to the surface. Destructive plate boundaries when heavy oceanic plate
subdcuts, melts into the mantle causing magma to rise up to the surface,

-Landslides: cause over 1,400 deaths a year on average. They are normally
found in mountainous areas often caused by heavy rainfall or seismic activity.
Human activity such…

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El Nino can bring devastating floods like the ones in Mozambique in
1997 and 2006.

Rapid snowmelt in some areas can cause flooding, which adds water to
already swollen rivers.



Distribution Of Storms:

Storms include tropical cyclones, mid-latitude storms and hurricanes. Tropical
cyclones are violent storms between 200km and 700km…

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Threats from Hazards Sits on a typhoon belt, Lies Earthquakes main risk ­
on the Eurasian and sits on San Andreas Fault,
Philippines plate boundary which is conservative plate
­ Volcanoes and boundary. Landslides can
Earthquakes. El Nino/La occur as a result due to
Nina can cause drought, Mountainous region.…

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The Arctic and Climate Change

In the past few decades, average temperatures in the Arctic have risen at twice
the rate of the rest of the world, 3-4 degrees Celsius in the past 50 years. It the
next 100 years temperatures could increase by a further 3-5 degrees Celsius
and…

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Impacts on Society:

Loss of hunting and decline of food security
Need for herd animals
Enhanced agriculture and forestry
Arctic will become more accessible and prone to being exposed for oil,
gas and other resources




Climate Change in Africa

Africa makes the least contribution to climate change but is the…

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The world's largest Deltas such as the Ganges in Bangladesh, where
there are large populations on low lying land close to major rivers

Small low lying islands such as the Maldives, where the land is only 4
meters above the sea surface

Areas close to sea levels that are heavily…

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- Depends on government policies.

- Unknown LEDC rate of development.

- The two scenarios involving smallest rises are
interventionist/best case scenario.

- Most likely 2°C-3°C.

- At a current rate, temperature rises reach 4°C.



Why is there uncertainty?

Predicting emission levels and their impacts are difficult as it is…

Comments

studyandtea

What grade did you get overall? :)

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