GCSE, AQA History, Quick Notes on League of Nations

I think these notes were for the League of Nation, but there for AQA GCSE History and are short revision notes which are hopefully helpful :)

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Paris peace conference. Aims of Clemenceau (France) George (Britain) Wilson
Wilsons 14 point plan.
1. No secret treaties
2. Free access to the sea for all
3. Free trade between countries
4. Disarmament by all countries
5. Colonies to have a say in their own future
6. Russia to be free of German troops
7. Belgium to be independent
8. Alsace ­ Lorraine to go to France
9. New frontier between Austria & Italy
10. Self ­ determination for people of Eastern Europe
11. Serbia to have access to sea
12. Self ­ determination for people in Turkish Empire
13. Poland o be independent with access to the sea
14. League of Nations to settle disputes
Terms of Versailles, its strengths, weaknesses and was it fair.
War guilt ­ they were blamed
Armed forces reduced to 100,000 men, only volunteers, without armoured vehicles, aircraft,
or submarines, and only 6 warships.
Troops weren't allow in the Rhineland ­ demilitarised
Forced to pay £6,600 million in reparations ­ would have taken them until 1980's to pay it
Lost its empire
Run by League of Nations
Points for fair:
1. War caused so much death and damage
2. They had to be stopped from do it again.
3. People in France and Britain wanted revenge
Points for not fair:
1. The punishment was too severe.
2. Germans were left weak and resentful ­ this could lead to anger and cause future problems
3. The treaty wouldn't help rebuild European trade and wealth ­ Germany couldn't afford the
reparations and many new countries were poor.
4. The peacemakers faced problems and pressure from the people at home.
Problems building for the future:
Without Germany, Russia or USA in the League of Nations, it'd be hard to keep the peace.
Europe couldn't recover properly while countries like Germany remained poor.
League of Nations, purpose, structure, strengths and weaknesses
Four main aims of League of Nations:
1. Stopping Aggression
2. Disarmament
By Cara Humphreys

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Encouraging Cooperation
4. Improving living and working conditions
It was intended to police the world.
It began work in January 1920
There were 42 members to start with, and 59 by the 1930's.
All the members followed a Covenant of 26 rules.
The assembly met once a year, and the council met more often
Every member had a vote
Tried to improve living conditions
Strengths ­ everyone wanted peace
Weakness ­ wasn't powerful enough, USA didn't join, failed to sort out crisis's.…read more

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All main members were guilty of making secret alliance
Differences between Communism and Capitalism.
Communism A system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy and a
single, often authoritarian party holds power, claiming to make progress toward a higher social order
in which all goods are equally shared by the people.
Capitalism - An economic system based on a free market, open competition, profit motive and
private ownership of the means of production.…read more

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War seems possible during the Berlin blockade so the Western powers met in Washington and
signed an agreement to work together.
Arms race.
The nuclear arms race was central to the Cold War. Many feared where the Cold War was going with
the belief that the more nuclear weapons you had, the more powerful you were. Both America and
Russia massively built up their stockpiles of nuclear weapons.
Koran War and Khrushchev's policy of peaceful coexistence.…read more

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The U2 crisis 1960
On 1st May 1960 an American U2 spy plane was shot down over Russia and the pilot, Gary Powers,
was captured. At first, the Americans tried to say that it was a weather plane, but they were forced
to admit that it was a spy plane when the Russians revealed that much of his plane had survived, and
that they had captured Gary Powers alive.…read more

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Despite the danger, there were also widespread protests within
Czechoslovakia over the Soviet occupation.
The Brezhnev Doctrine.
The Czechoslovak episode gave risk to the Brezhnev Doctrine. The essentials of Communism were
defined as:
A one-party system diary
To remain a member of the Warsaw Pact
The doctrine stipulated that when one country was to pass from a socialist (communist) government
to a capitalist one (democracy), it concerned all socialist countries, not only the affected country.…read more


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