AQA GCSE History Nazi Germany 1919-1945

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4.1 Hovv successful vvere the
Nazis in influencing young
people?
Hitler wanted to turn young people into loyal Nazis. In
order to do so the Nazi Party set out to control all aspects of
young people's lives, including their family lives, their time
at school and even their leisure time. In this chapter you
will explore how successful these policies were. Did the
Nazis manage to influence and control all young people?
Source 1
The Nazis put a massive effort into
Hitler's words on youth, from Hitler Speaks by Herman Rauschning, 1939: getting us young people on their side.
In my great educational work I am beginning with the young. My magnificent They knewthey would never get the
youngsters! With them I can make a new world' support of all adults, but if they coulo
My teaching is hard. Weakness has to be knocked out of them. The world will shrink control young peoplethey would contra.
in alarm from the youngsters who grow up in my schools: a violent, masterful, the future ...
brave, cruel, younger generation. I will have no intellectual training. Knowledge is
ruin to my young men.
The Hitler Youth
The Hitler Youth was a successful movement even League of German Maidens
before the Nazis came to power, with 30 per cent of all
Girls joined. the Young Girls at the age of ten. From the
young Germans already members. Once they were in
age of fourteen they were encouraged to join the.
power, membership became hard to avoid, with over
League of German Maidens. For girls the emphasis
80 per cent of young Germans joining by 1939.
was on keeping fit and home-building. To become
Boys joined the German Young People at the age of members girls had to run 60 metres in fourteen
ten. At the age of fourteen they became members of seconds, throw a ball twelve metres, complete
the Hitler Youth. Here they spent their time doing somersaults, a tightrope walk and a two-hour march or
physical activities such as hiking, running and 100 metre swim and know how to make a bed. For
jumping. They were also expected to listen to talks on girls the aim of the Hitler Youth was to prepare them
Nazi political ideas and German history. To become a for motherhood and marriage. As a result there was
member of the HitlerYouth boys had to: run 60 metres less emphasis on military training. However, personal
in twelve seconds, jump 2.75 metres, throw a ball 25 fitness and loyalty were still seen as being very
metres, complete a one-and-a-half-day cross-country important.
march, do close combat exercises, jump out of a first
After joining, the boy or girl swore an oath promising
floor window wearing full army battledress and
to love and be faithful to Hitler. Hitler Youth leaders
answer questions on Nazi ideas and history. One of
made it clear to boys and girls that their first loyalty
the key aims of the Hitler Youth was to prepare boys
was to Adolf Hitler, not their family.
for a life in the army by producing fit, fearless and
loyal young soldiers.
70

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·
4.1 How successful were the Nazis in influencing young people?
Source 2 Source 3
.·. Hitler Youth members jumping over
fire to demonstrate their bravery .·. Members of the Hitler Youth forming a swastika
n schools Source 4
The whole curriculum was used to teach what the Nazis wanted young
people to think. Teachers who refused to teach these things were sacked.
PE: Three double lessons a week for boys and girls. Boxing was
compulsory for boys. Girls were also taught home-making and childcare.…read more

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Section 4: Race and youth
Did all young people support the Nazis?
Many young people were attracted to the Hitler Youth. They enjoyed the leisure
opportunities the movement offered and there was no real alternative as all other
youth organisations had been made illegal.
However, others hated the Hitler Youth and one in five young Germans never
joined. They found the propaganda talks boring and repetitive. They disliked
being bossed about.…read more

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On page 57 we looked at the structure of Section A · Question (a) in Section B is different as it requires
of the Enquiry in Depth exam. a short answer and normally carries 4 marks. It
Section B consists of three questions that are worth is important to make sure that your answer is
24 marks in total. short and to the point with a clear focus on the
question.…read more

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Section 4: Race and youth
4.2 Hovv important vvere Nazi ideas
on race?
You have already seen on page 60 that Hitler and the Nazi Party
had very clear ideas about the kind of Germany they wanted and
the types of people they wanted living there. Only certain types
of people fitted into the Nazi ideal. This chapter explores how
people who did not fit into the Nazis' plans for a master race
were treated and how this changed over time.…read more

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How important were Nazi ideas on race?
How were Jewish people persecuted between Lisa
1933 and 19397 Q
Jews had suffered religious prejudice for centuries. But the Nazis took
anti-Semitism to a new extreme. They used bogus research to suggest that
Jews were an 'inferior' race. They blamed the Jews for the problems in
Germany. They encouraged ordinary Germans to hate Jews. Gradually,
they took away the civil rights of German Jews.…read more

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Section 4: Race and youth
4.3 From persecution to genocide:
hovv did the Nazi treatment of .Jevvs
change during the Second World War?
Hitler's own anti-Semitism was deep-rooted. You have already seen how the Nazis made
life increasingly difficult for the Jews of Germany from the moment they took power in
1933. But the Second World War allowed the Nazis to push their anti-Iewish policy to new
extremes.
The ghettos
After Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, another 3.…read more

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·
4.3 From persecution to genocide: how did the Nazi treatment of Jews change during the Second World War?
'Tne If\l\a\ SO\U\\O'"
On 31 July 1941, Goering (the Economics Minister) ordered Himmler (the
Head of the SS) and Heydrich (an SS general) to carry out the 'final
solutiotito the Jewish question/in Europe. Shooting (carried out by the
Einsatzgruppen) and the ghettos were seen as 'inefficient' ways of killing
millions of people.…read more

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Section 4: Race and youth
Case Study: Auschwitz death camp
The Nazis were proud of their efficient death machine. In every country that
the Nazis ruled, lists of Jews were drawn up. They were taken from their
homes and put on trains. On arrival at the camp inmates walked past a Nazi
doctor who indicated whether they should go left or right: left to work; right
to the gas chambers.…read more

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·
4.3 From persecution to genocide: how did the Nazi treatment of Jews change during the Second World War?
?
How did the Jews resist? Source 7
Jewish partisan groups
Jews did fight against what was happening to them.
Jewish resistance groups took to the countryside. In
Poland there were at least 28 groups of Jewish fighters.
These resistance groups blew up railway lines and
attacked German soldiers. During 1942 as many as
40,000 Jews escaped from the ghettos of Poland into
the forests.…read more

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