AQA GCSE History Paper 2 - Germany

Notes on Germany. I got an A so i hope they help.

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  • Created on: 31-01-10 12:37
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History Paper 2 ­ Germany 1919-1939
1918 - German Revolution, abdication of Wilhelm II and armistice
1919 - Defeat of the Spartacist Rising, establishment of the Weimar Republic, Treaty of
1920 - Kapp Putsch
1923 - Occupation of the Ruhr, Hyperinflation, Munich Putsch, and Stresemann becomes
1924 - Trial of Adolf Hitler
1929 - Death of Stresemann, Wall Street Crash
1930 - Nazis gain rapid rise in support
1932 - Nazis established as strongest party in two elections
1933 - Hitler invited to be Chancellor - Reichstag Fire, March Election, Enabling Act, Hitler
consolidates his power
1934 - Night of the Long Knives, Hitler becomes Fuhrer on the death of Hindenburg
1935 - Nuremburg Laws passed to deny Jews German citizenship; Hitler announces
German rearmament and starts conscription
1936 - Hitler re-occupies Rhineland
1938 - Union with Austria and Munich Agreement
1939 - Occupation of Prague, Nazi-Soviet Pact and Invasion of Poland
Weimar Republic
In theory, the new Weimar constitution gave Germany a nearly perfect democratic
The `lower house' (Reichstag) was elected by proportional representation. It gave
all men and woman over 20 the right to vote. It was one of the most advanced
democracies in Europe.
Germany was to be a federation (each German state would have its own
The `upper house' (Reichsrat) was made up of representatives from each of the
German states.
WEAKNESSESS ­ proportional representation encouraged lots of small parties. It was
difficult for one party to get a majority (this led to a weak government). The president
had too much power: article 48 said that in an emergency the president could make its
own laws without going to the Reichstag first.
Initial Problems
After the First World War Germany was left in ruins, 2 million had died and Germany's
surrender did not please the German people. There were many strikes and
demonstrations and a lot of people were starving.
Ludendorff, who was the military commander fled to Sweden.
Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated.
Leader of Social Party ­ Fredrick Ebert was appointed leader of the government.
On the 11th November 1918 German armed forces surrendered.

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Treaty of Versailles ­ clause 231 which said that Germany must take the blame for
the war and to pay reparations for the £6600million damaged caused.
The Spartacist Revolt 1919
· An attempted armed putsch in Berlin aiming to snatch power from President
· They gained control of some newspaper offices but Ebert called on the Freikorps
(Fascist Soldiers) to put the revolt down.…read more

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RENTENMARK The introduction of this new currency stabilised the German currency.
DAWES PLAN In return for Germany starting to pay reparations once more, the USA
agreed to lend Germany 800 million marks to build new factories to produce jobs/goods
and improve people's standard of living. This plan restored a lot of confidence in the
German economy and by 1925 French and Belgian troops had withdrawn from the Ruhr.
YOUNG PLAN In 1929 the deadline for repayments was extended for a further 59 years.…read more

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The Munich Putsch 1923
As Gustav Von Kahr (leader of the Bavarian government) addressed a meeting at the beer
hall in Munich, Hitler arrived with 600 stormtroopers. He stopped the meeting and held
Kahr at gunpoint, trying to persuade him to support the Putsch. The next day the SA took
key positions at Munich. However Kahr had been freed after agreeing to support it and he
alerted the army and police.…read more

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How Hitler becomes dictator 1933-1934
The Reichstag fire, February 1933
The Reichstag building burnt down. A communist was found inside it who admitted
responsibility. Hitler was able to convince people that the communists were trying to
take power by terrorism, and was able to have them banned from the Reichstag.
The Enabling Act, March 1933
With the communists banned, Hitler was able to pass:
Hitler can rule alone for 4 years and there is no need to consult the Reichstag.…read more

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Another way Hitler increased employment was
by re-arming the military.
The Jews in Nazi Germany
The Nazis hated Jews. They claimed Jews were responsible for many German problems
and passed many harsh laws against them.
NUREMBURG LAWS ­ these laws stopped Jews being German citizens. Marriage between
Jews and non-Jews was banned. Sex between Jews and non-Jews was banned. All jews
were forced to wear a yellow star of David on their clothes.…read more

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Hitler controlled young people's beliefs - at 10 years old children joined the Jungvolk
(Young People) ­ the boys joined the Hitler Youth and girls joined the League of German
Maidens. They were taught to support Hitler, even informing on their parents if necessary.
Girls were taught that the role of women was to have lots of children, be good
housewives and to support their men in making Germany great.…read more


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