G541 Psychological investigation how to answer 10 mark questions!

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Experiments
A researcher wants to conduct an experiment investigating what effect music has on concentration.
Describe and evaluate an appropriate procedure to investigate this (10 marks).
Description (5 marks) Evaluation (5 marks)
Type of experiment Validity of experiment- high/low in
IV and DV (operationalised- how will you ecological validity?
quantify concentration?) Validity of the DV- is it a realistic
Procedure- what will your participants measure of concentration?
do? Include timings/ controls Control over extraneous variables
Experimental design (independent, (improves validity)
repeated, matched pairs) Practice effects/ demand
Sampling method and sample. characteristics/ participant variables
relating to the experimental design you
have used.
Reliability of the methods- included
timings, same concentration task, same
music etc so high in internal reliability.
To investigate the effect of music on concentration a lab experiment can be conducted. This
will ensure that extraneous variables such as time of day and temperature of the room can
be controlled. However, the research would be low in ecological validity as participants will
conduct the concentration task in a controlled artificial setting, this means that the findings on
concentration cannot be generalised to a real life setting- for example listening to music at
home.
The IV would be if participants listen to Guns and Roses on an iPod or if they listen to no
music whilst completing the task. The DV would be the number of words participants
correctly circle (out of 25) in the word search. The experimental design would be repeated
measures as participants will take part in both conditions and the number of words identified
will be compared. Using a repeated measures design will mean that a different word search
will need to be used in each condition to avoid practice effects, as if participants used the
same in each they would be better the second time round which would reduce the validity of
the results. Participants' variables will not affect the validity of results as the same
participants will be doing both conditions. Counterbalancing will be used to reduce order
effects further.
Participants will be invited to do the test individually in a classroom. They will be asked to
sign informed consent and given 2 mins to identify as many words as they can whilst listening
to music or no music. There will be 50 participants selected via opportunity sampling from
Collyer's college. The reliability will be high as standardised procedure will be used, i.e. the
participants will listen to the same music, use the same word searches and be given 2 mins to
complete the task. The task will not cause psychological harm and confidentiality will be
ensured.

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Observations
A researcher wants to investigate students' use of mobile phones in college. Describe and evaluate
an appropriate procedure to investigate this.
Description (5 marks) Evaluation (5 marks)
Type of observation- covert/overt/ Validity- ecological validity as in college
naturalistic etc. setting, demand characteristics
Describe a coding system- tally chart or Inter-rater reliability- if using more than
table of the specific behaviours that you 2 observers- explain this.…read more

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Self-report
Psychologists want to investigate people's beliefs in paranormal activity. Describe and evaluate an
appropriate procedure that could be conducted to investigate this issue. (10)
Description (5 marks) Evaluation (5 marks)
Sample ­ type, recruitment procedure, Adv. and disadv. of collecting data
size, gender through questionnaires
Questionnaire ­ types of questions Adv. and disadv.…read more

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Therefore the results would be representative only for this
subgroup of the population.
Correlations
Psychologists want to investigate if there is a correlation between how interested a person is in cars
and their driving skills.
Describe and evaluate a way to operationalize/measure `driving skills' and the `interest in cars' that
could be used in this study (10 marks).
Description (5 marks) Evaluation (5 marks)
Two variables (how will you measure Adv. and disadv.…read more

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External
reliability may need to be established by doing the same study again at a later date.…read more

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