Psychological investigations keywords

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  • G541 - Psychological Investigations
    • Correlation
      • Scattergraph - a way of displaying data collected from a correlation.
        • Perfect negative - the scattergraph shows a negative correlation.
        • Perfect positive - the scattergraph shows positive correlation.
        • No correlation - the scattergraph shows no pattern.
      • Co-variables - the two things that are being correlated.
      • Null hypothesis - a hypothesis predicting no significant difference.
      • Correlational hypothesis - shows the predicted results (positive, negative or no correlation).
    • Self-report
      • Closed question - a question with a yes/no answer.
      • Open question - usually starts with who, what, where, when, why, how?
      • Fixed choice question - a question with a set of pre-set answers.
      • Structured interview - the same questions are used with all participants.
      • Unstructured interview - participants can discuss topics freely.
      • Rating scales - participants rate their agreement on an explained scale.
    • Experiment
      • Field - an experiment carried out in a natural setting, IV is manipulated.
      • Laboratory - an experiment carried out with extremely high control, IV is manipulated and  method is standardised.
      • Natural (Quasi) - an experiment carried out in a natural setting, IV is not manipulated.
      • Extraneous variables - outside variables that may affect the results.
      • Cause & effect - Saying that the IV caused the DV to give certain results.
      • Experimental design
        • Matched participants - similar to independent measures, groups are allocated by measuring a certain variable and matching pairs of participants on said variable.
        • Repeated measures - participants partake in every condition.
        • Independent measures - participants are only allocated to one condition.
    • Observation
      • Tally chart
      • Participant observation - observation carried out by a person in the group being observed.
      • Disclosed/Covert - participants are aware that they're being observed.
      • Behaviour checklist - a list of behaviours to be observed.
      • Event sampling - noting every time a behaviour is observed.
      • Time sampling - sampling for one or more short periods of time.
      • Undiclosed/Overt - participants are aware that they're being observed.
      • Structured observation - observation with a clearly defined system for recording behaviour.

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