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OCR Psychology Revision G541

Methods and Investigations
Contents
1. Key terms
2. Observation
3. Self-Report
4. Experiment
5. Correlation
6. Specification for G541


KEY TERMS
Aim: What you are trying to find out- purpose of
the study


Causal Relationship: When one event causes another


Confidentiality: Participants' data should be kept…

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Dependent Variable: A Dependent Variable is the "thing" that is being measured
in the experiment (there can be more than one!).

Descriptive Statistic: Basically it's just the mathematical things we use: Mean,
median and mode!


Double-blind technique: Both participant researchers are unaware of aim of the
experiment


Ecological Validity: How…

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Independent Variable: An Independent Variable is the variable manipulated by
the experimenter to see what affect it has on the dependent variable. This
demonstrates cause and effect relationships.


Inter-rater reliability: Involves comparing or correlating the observations of two
or more observers and checking for consistency


Interval Data: Data that is…

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One-Tailed Hypotheses: Predicts the direction the results will go in. E.g. People
who listen to music while studying will perform better on a memory test than
people who work in silence.


Opportunity Sampling: selecting those subjects who are around and available at
the time. A strength of this is it…

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Self-Selected Sampling: Where people volunteer to take part in a study. A
strength of this is that it's convenient, unbiased, and if informed consent is
made on the part of the researcher, then it's ethical. A weakness of this is that
it's unrepresentative, as volunteers are very different to non-volunteers…

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MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY AND DISPERSION
MEASURES MEAN Adds values, divide by Makes use of all data
OF number of values Can be misrepresentative of there
CENTRAL are extreme values
TENDENCY

MEDIAN Middle value in an Not affected by extreme scores
ordered list
Doesn't take all values into account
MODE…

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Usually you should talk about structured observations if you are asked how
you would observe a specific situation. E.g. Teenager's usage of their phones.
In this we use a coding system, putting people into different behavioural
categories. This is evident in Bandura et al's study on imitated aggression.

Coding System…

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Validity is the extent to which the research has measured what it intended to
measure; basically how well it tests the aim. The main issue is observer bias
(See Glossary). This reduces the objectivity and validity of observations. We
can improve this by using more than one observer and averaging…

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· No informed consent or debriefing if participants are unaware
they're taking part in a research. To improve, put up notices
detailing possible observation times so people can decide whether to
enter the area or not.
· Invasion of privacy- participants might be distressed if they found
out they were…

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being restricted. Closed questions provide limited choices but are far
easier to analyse. An example of a closed question could be rating
scales.

Ethical Issues

It is expected that all participants will have informed to the questionnaire and
where deception is necessary, all participants should have been debriefed.
Questions should…

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