OCR Methods and Investigation G541 (entire Syllabus)

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OCR Psychology Revision G541
Methods and Investigations
Contents
1. Key terms
2. Observation
3. Self-Report
4. Experiment
5. Correlation
6. Specification for G541
KEY TERMS
Aim: What you are trying to find out- purpose of
the study
Causal Relationship: When one event causes another
Confidentiality: Participants' data should be kept anonymous unless they have
given consent to make it public.
Consent: Researchers need to obtain the participants' full consent to take part in
the study.
Control Condition: This is a condition that doesn't involve changing the IV. E.g.
the Tourette's condition in Baron-Cohen
.
Correlation Co-efficient: Number between -1 and +1 and states how strong a
correlation is.
Debriefing: Participants understanding of the research after the study has taken
place.
Deception: Participants should never be deliberately mislead without medical
(or any other valid) justification.
Demand Characteristics: Features that inform participants about the aim and can
influence their behaviour or results. Can be reduced by single blind technique
and double blind technique

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Dependent Variable: A Dependent Variable is the "thing" that is being measured
in the experiment (there can be more than one!).
Descriptive Statistic: Basically it's just the mathematical things we use: Mean,
median and mode!
Double-blind technique: Both participant researchers are unaware of aim of the
experiment
Ecological Validity: How well a study can be related or reflects everyday real
life situations
Empirical ­ This is a practical way of looking at something, usually realistic
and experimental.…read more

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Independent Variable: An Independent Variable is the variable manipulated by
the experimenter to see what affect it has on the dependent variable. This
demonstrates cause and effect relationships.…read more

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One-Tailed Hypotheses: Predicts the direction the results will go in. E.g. People
who listen to music while studying will perform better on a memory test than
people who work in silence.
Opportunity Sampling: selecting those subjects who are around and available at
the time. A strength of this is it that it's quick and convenient. However, a
weakness is that it's unrepresentative and biased on the part of the researcher,
as they may choose subjects who are "helpful".…read more

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Self-Selected Sampling: Where people volunteer to take part in a study. A
strength of this is that it's convenient, unbiased, and if informed consent is
made on the part of the researcher, then it's ethical.…read more

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MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY AND DISPERSION
MEASURES MEAN Adds values, divide by Makes use of all data
OF number of values Can be misrepresentative of there
CENTRAL are extreme values
TENDENCY
MEDIAN Middle value in an Not affected by extreme scores
ordered list
Doesn't take all values into account
MODE The most common Useful when data is in categories
values(s) Not useful when there are several
modes
MEASURES RANGE Highest to lowest Easy to calculate
OF
DIPSERSIO Affected by extreme values
N
STANDAR Mathematical Precise,…read more

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Usually you should talk about structured observations if you are asked how
you would observe a specific situation. E.g. Teenager's usage of their phones.
In this we use a coding system, putting people into different behavioural
categories. This is evident in Bandura et al's study on imitated aggression.
Coding System
Should be:
1. Objective: the observer should not have to make inferences about
the behaviour.
2. Cover all possible behaviours: this avoids the "other" category
3.…read more

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Validity is the extent to which the research has measured what it intended to
measure; basically how well it tests the aim. The main issue is observer bias
(See Glossary). This reduces the objectivity and validity of observations. We
can improve this by using more than one observer and averaging data across
observers to balance out any biases. It can also be improved by keeping
observers in the dark so that they cannot possibly force their opinions onto
the observation.…read more

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No informed consent or debriefing if participants are unaware
they're taking part in a research. To improve, put up notices
detailing possible observation times so people can decide whether to
enter the area or not.
· Invasion of privacy- participants might be distressed if they found
out they were being observed. To improve, only observe in public
places.
· Deception ­ Participants should not be deceived. However if
deception is used then participants must be debriefed afterwards.
I.e.…read more

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Closed questions provide limited choices but are far
easier to analyse. An example of a closed question could be rating
scales.
Ethical Issues
It is expected that all participants will have informed to the questionnaire and
where deception is necessary, all participants should have been debriefed.
Questions should not cause emotional or psychological harm and they
should avoid the invasion of privacy. Participant'snames should not be
recorded and their answer can only be stored with permission.…read more

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