edexcel history India revision notes AS

These notes are for edexcel AS history D2 topic.

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Preeya
  • Created on: 02-06-11 11:55
Preview of edexcel history India revision notes AS

First 379 words of the document:

Indian Historical Events
Indian Mutiny (Sepoy Mutiny) 1857:
Who by? Sepoys Bengali foot soldiers
What was it? Widespread but unsuccessful rebellion against British rule in India in
1857­58.Begun in Meerut by Indian troops (sepoys) in the service of the British East India
Company, it spread to Delhi, Agra, Kanpur, and Lucknow.
Why did it happen? ­ Indians had enough of the missionaries trying to convert them
Rapid introduction of western civilisation
Dissatisfaction with pay
Gun cartridges made of cow/pig grease
Consequence: Lack of trust between the Indians and the British. Caused constant fear on
behalf of the British until 1920s.
FACTS: Sepoys wished to reinstate Mughal rule, Punjab Sikhs didn't support this and
helped the British regain power.
References made throughout the raj , ww2 `dilli chalo' common phrase by mutiniers was
echoed by INA.
Royal Proclamation (1858):
Transfer of power to the Monarch.
Ilbert Bill (1883):
Who by? Lord Ripon
What was it? a controversial measure proposed in 1883, sought to allow senior Indian
magistrates to preside over cases involving British subjects in India.The bill, severely
weakened by compromise, was enacted by the Indian Legislative Council on Jan. 25, 1884.
Why did it happen? British subjects in 1873 had been exempted from trial by Indian
magistrates, and in cases involving death or transportation they could only be tried by a high
Consequence: May have caused the Indian Nation Congress to be formed. Although not
true Indian judges seen as incapable of making sound judgements by European women.
FACT: 50 % of the jury had to be European if the Judge was Indian
Indian National Congress (1885):
Who created it? N/A
What was it? Congress Party, broadly based political party of India. Began with high caste
Hindus who spoke English couldn't connect to the masses till 1920s when Gandhi became
the leader.
Why was it formed? In demand of more power to Indians in ruling the country.
Consequence: Formed in 1885, the Indian National Congress dominated the Indian
movement for independence from Great Britain and has formed most of India's
governments from the time of independence

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

FACT: by 1907 group had 2 factions
1 group of moderates led by Gokhale dominion status wanted
1 group of radicals led by Tilak ­ wanted independence
By 1920 led by Gandhi because Tilak and Gokhale died Besant no longer
important ­ passive resistance
Tibet expedition (1904):
Who? Lord Curzon ordered the Tibet expedition.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Pakistan as a Muslim
state in the Indian subcontinent.
Why did it happen? It was created in the context of the circumstances that were generated
over the partition of Bengal in 1905. Muslims were fed up of the Hindu Raj and wanted a
voice of their own because they weren't being represented and were a large underclass.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Fighting Turkey caused problems with Muslims troops who
did not want to go against the caliph and caused 3 mutinies of Muslim battalions.
Why did India Join? Out of loyalty to the Emperor King George V
Consequence? Compromised Internal control of India, no British Battalions in India
uprisings would be fatal no way of stopping them. Mesopotamia caused a blow to the
British invincibility myth and to the British moral superiority myth.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Montagu declaration (1917):
Who by? Lord Montagu a liberal secretary of State
What was it? A statement of gradual self government for India ­ not time scale was
indicated but within the British Empire
Why did it happen? Indians felt they should get some sort of reward for sacrifices made in
WW1 British were inclined to do something due to fear of uprisings
Consequence? MontaguChelmsford reforms 1919
FACTS: no time line was specified for eventual self government
MontaguChelmsford report/ reforms (1919):
Who by? Sec of…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Gandhi and gave a call for boycotting the government educational institutions,
offices and law courts. Call was also given to boycott the foreign cloth and adopt Khadi.
The programme included the actions like resigning from the government jobs, surrendering
the government conferred titles etc. Gradually, the movement also included mass civil
disobedience and refusal to pay taxes.
Why did it happen? After the First World War to protect the Ottoman Empire from
dismemberment.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Why did it happen? Aimed to make the Raj ungovernable, force the British out
Consequence? Unfortunately the masses didn't understand the morality of the Satyagraha
and Hartals/ communal violence broke out. Chaura Chauri 22 policemen were torched to
death in a police station, the incident forced Gandhi to end Satyagraha and withdraw to
FACTS: Muslims declared Jihad and killed wealthy Hindu and Muslim landlords forcing
peasants to convert to Islam. Hindus on the Gangetic plain force Muslims to become
15.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

British india and the princely states should be federally bound.
12.GandhiIrwin Pact (1931):
Who by? Irwin
What was it? Compromise on the current stalemate
Why did it happen? Due to stalemate in india over its future, avoid violence
Consequence? ­ civil disobedience ended
Gandhi attended 2nd r table conference
19,000 released from jail
Emergency powers relaxed
Property returned to owners
11.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Indian reaction? ­ 2 million joined army
Halt federation plans
Lahore resolution muslims demanding Pakistan comparision to
Britain and Ireland call for separate states
Consequence? Caused divergence between muslim league and hindus weakened
the nationalist movement
British wanted to make weak concessions to avoid having to secure inside of india
rather than fighting outside ­by 1940 congress looking for independence not
concessions seen by rejection of the 1940 aug offer
Atlantic charter 1941:
Who by? Roosevelt and churchill
What was it? Americans displeased with GB's…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Why did it happen? low harvest, low imports due to war, shortages of other foods.
Disease out breaks , Wavell manages to get imports but situation out of control
Consequence? Debts mounted, GB govt increase soldiers wages more pressure on
FACTS: cost of empire increase by £ 400 million
3. Shimla Conference (1945):
What was it? Failure
muslim league wanted to be said to represent all muslims but it didn't congress sent
azad a muslim to show they represented all Indians.
2.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all resources »