Numbers of men:
- British Field Army had 28,000 men at the first battle, reinforcements did arrive.
- Combined, the allies outnumbered Russia (63,000 vs 33,000).
- 664 men in the Light Brigade.
Terms of service:
- Soldiers signed up for 21 years.
- Pension of 1 shilling a day.
- Half of the army were from Scotland and Ireland to escape poverty.
- Flogging up to 50 strokes (1200 in the 1820’s).
- 3000 soldiers in military prison at one time.
- 1 out of 8 soldiers arrested every month for being drunk.
- 2000 men per year deserted.
Purchase of commission:
- Landed or titled families.
- Lieutenant - £1000.
- Lieutenant Colonel - £7000.
- Half of officers bought promotions.
- Hadn’t been at war since 1815.
- Stayed in the Crimea for the whole of the war.
Duke of Wellington:
- War hero.
- Blocked reform of the army.
- No one would go against his word.
- He died in 1852.
- Froze tracks.
- Gave animal nowhere to graze.
- Supplies couldn’t get to the front line.
- Severe cold caused the deaths of: 9000 fit men and 23000 unfit men.
Medical Issues in the Crimea
The initial medical support:
- 1853 – 8 doctors in the Crimea.
- 80% of men died of disease.
- 1854-1855 winter, 1/3 of the British Army died of disease.
- The doctors still did all the operations and stitching etc, the nurses were basically a support basis.
- Florence Knightingale (middle class) went to Scutari Hospital, 4th November1854.
- Florence Knightingale controlled 39 nurses out of 230.
- Mary Stanley (protestant) controlled 47 nurses, more than Knightingale.
- Mary Seacole (muletto, funded herself) set up the British Hotel.
- Mary Seacole was the only one on the front lines out of the 3.
- Only Mary Seacole had any form of medical expertise.
- March 1855.
- Scutari Death rates: 42% in March 1855, 2% in June 1855.
- Basic sanitary improvements.
- Floors replaced.
- Double rows of mattresses replaced with single ones.
William Howard Russell
- First true war correspondent.
- Critical of influential figures.
- Worked for the Times, very critical of Raglan.
- There was appropriate form of government censorship in place.
- The Times was read by the middle classes, who could influence politics and the war.
Boer War 1899-1902
Why the Boer War started
History of the tension:
- Britain took the Cape Colony in 1814-1815 after the Napoleonic Wars. Gradually moved up and took the whole of South Africa.
- Slavery abolished in British Empire in 1833, angered Boers.
- Boers want independence.
- Britain wanted trade routes across Africa and to keep empire.
- Britain wanted to protect India.
Zulu Wars 1970s:
- Britain fought with Boers to overturn the last of the Zulus.
- Britain confirmed occupation of the northern states.
- Boers give Britain sovereignty (ownership) over their area.
First Boer War 1880-1881:
- Boers demanded independence after the Zulu Wars.
Battle of Majuba Hill during the First Boer War:
- Boers defeated 400 Brits and pushed them out.
- Gladstone conceded to demands for the Boers to occupy Transvaal and Orange Free State, although Britain still…