edexcel gcse history A unit: 2B Russia

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The collapse of the Tsarist regime 1917
26 December 2011
Russia in 1917 - covered a sixth of the world's land
Under half of the 125.6 million spoke Russian
Peasants - 93.7 million were peasants in 1897
Over half had no land or homes of their own.
Industries - about 50% of factory workers lived in Moscow, the biggest industrial city
Workers had:
bad housing (10p/room)
Long working hours
Dangerous working conditions
Tsar Nicholas II- ruled Russia in 1917
An indecisive man
Came from the Romanovs that ruled Russia since 1613
Had a council of minister from noble families to advise him
An autocrat
Took command of the army after 1915
He left the government in the hands of his (German) wife who made bad decisions
The tsar did not come back to St. Petersburg but instead sent a telegram ordering the general in charge
of St. Petersburg to stop the riots
The duma - a parliament created by Tsar Nicholas II after the 1905 revolution
It failed as it was full of monarchist who supported him (due to the voting regulations)
He stopped listening to him at all
The Petrograd soviets and the 12 duma members set up the provisional government to run the country
until elections can be held
The revolutionary opponents - the social democrats (biggest group) thought that the revolutions would happen in towns
led by workers.
They split into the Bolsheviks (led by Lenin) Mensheviks (many leaders )
World War I - the war was popular at first
Only 21 deputies of the duma opposed it
transport problems made the army weak
Soldier were badly equipped
In 1915 2 million soldiers were killed, wounded or captured
There were shortages in the cities
effects of war - military failure made the war unpopular
people didn't like conscriptions
People didn't like the army demands on food and farm animals
Food production fell and shortages got worse
1914-16 people got 25% less food and infant mortality doubled
February revolution - on February 21, some workers were locked out of the Pulitov works
Over the next 2 days demonstrations grew
The police was unable to stop them so they continued to grow
Troops were ordered to fire at the demonstrators
Some of the troops changed sides (w/ weapons) and organised the capture of weapon factories
boosting the revolution
Provisional government - was weak as it only saw itself as temporary
Controlled only part on Russia
It was the army and the soviets especially in St. Petersburg who were keeping it in power
It failed to take Russia out of the war, end food and fuel shortages, to redistribute property more
The collapse of the Tsarist regime 1917 Page 1

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It failed to take Russia out of the war, end food and fuel shortages, to redistribute property more
equally and improve working conditions.…read more

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December 2011
October 1917 - the Provisional government seemed about to fall
Lenin returned to Petrograd fearing that the Petrograd soviets would take control after the
2nd revolution
Trotsky was the leader of the Petrograd soviet's military committee secretly persuaded the
military units to support him (Kronstadt )
October revolution - began on the night of24 October
The provisional government was arrested
The council of people's commissars was set up to rule temporarily by decree
Some members of the congress of soviets members rejected…read more

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Cheka - were used to stop political opposition during the civil war
1919 the cheka arrested 8700 and shot 8,389 without trial during the red terror
Civil rights suffered
War communism - organised farming and industry to serve the war
peasants had animals and crops taken
The state ran the bank and fixed wages and prices
It helped the war but peasants grew less food
Food supplies fell so prices rose and money lost its value
Victory of bolsheviks - because the cheka controlled the…read more

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Stalin's dictatorship 1924-1939
16 January 2012
Lenin did not name a successor - Lenin did not think one person should dominate the party
The CPC ran the soviet union in the 1920 but Lenin always got his way
The leadership contestants were :
Lenin's testament - he discussed the strengths and weakness of party members including stalin and trotsky
Stalin :
Stalin is too rude and this defect, although quite tolerable in our midst and in dealing…read more

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The cheka became the reformed GPU then OGPU
The OGPU could also send people into organisations and factories to look for sabotage
Prison camps ( gulag) - under stalin camps were moved into isolated areas and became bigger
Cheka sent 250,000 to prison camps by 1920
In 1938 7,000,000 were in camps and were ran by a department called gulag
Purges -began in 1934
Factory failures were blamed on sabotage by the enemies of the state not incompetence
Groups purged by the OGPU - many…read more

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January 2012
Industrialisation & collectivisation - to make the soviet safe from western aggression
For higher industrial output and to feed the town workers
To surplus grains to earn money from grain export
Collectivisation - was joining small farms and villages together into big farms kolkhozy
Stalin wanted eventually to make them into state managed farms sovkozy
Collectives - the average collective was about 80 hectares and is worked by 'brigades' of about 15 families
The state working hour is usually 140 days per…read more

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Second five year plan - 1933 -1937
Focused on heavy industry and set targets for tractor and combine harvester production
It started a year early
Was more realistic and so met its target
The third five year plan - 1938-1941
Was the first to include bikes and radio
Didn't finish as from 1939 production was geared towards the war
Alexei Stakhanov - a miner who dug 102 tons in a 6 hour shift
GOSPLAN arranged this as propaganda to encourage workers to immitate…read more



brilliant stuff thanks so much

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