Complete PSYB3 notes (except for hardiness and locus of control)

Topics I covered were:

Stress and Illness (missing locus of control and hardiness)

Offending Behaviour,

Child Development

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Stress & Illness…read more

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· Peoples reaction to excessive pressures, perception of threat and inability to cope
· Internal: noise, bright lights, e.g. lifestyle,
· External: hassles, major life event such as deaths, births etc
· Physical: fatigue, digestion changes etc. Mental: lack of concentration, memory lapses
Behavioural: appetite, eating disorders etc. Emotional: depression, impatience, rage etc
Fight/Flight: action of sympathetic action in response to stress
Stress and Illness ­ immunosupression ­ related to cardiovascuar/immune system disease,
asthma, diabetes, ulcers, headaches
Immune system (cells in body concerned with fighting intruders) and stress ­ sIgA ­ secretory
immunoglobin A. When really stressed, corticosteroids. Stress doesn't cause illness, increases
susceptability.…read more

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Descriptive Evaluative
· 1) Alarm response ­ both ANS · Ignores psychological factors
(sympathetic and parasympathetic) and · Generalisation, ethical, extrapolation
Endocrine (hypothalamus, pituitary
gland, sympathetic ganglia, adrenal · Psychological factors can affect
cortex, adrenal medula) physiological response
· Psychoneuroimmunology
· 2) Adaptation ­ long term protection, and
relaxation IF NOT, fatigue etc. · Benefit individual ­ eustress
Glucosteroids released · GAS ­ influetial
· 3) Exhaustion ­ in chronic situation, · Influential ­ link between stress and
decreased stress tolerance, illness, in illness
extreme ­ hypoglycaemia ­ death. · Social, cog, emotional factors?
Disorders may develop…read more

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Physiological Measures (Scientific) Evaluation
· Blood pressure Advantages
· Objective, easily quantified & reliable
· Steroid levels in urine and saliva
(corticosteroids) · Measures of can be taken easily
· Relationship - symp activity and emo arousal
· Polygraph (lie detector) Disadvantages
· GSR ­ sweat levels ­ palm/fingertips/ · Methods are expensive ­ specialist
changes in relative conductance of small · Subjective perceptions?
electrical current. Sweat gland activity in · Affected by other measures ­ caffeine
response to sympathetic nervous · Ethical problems ­ electrical devices
stimulation ­ increased
· Physiological arousal is a response
· Although realtionship, cannot identify emotion
being elicited…read more

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Behavioural Measures (observation) Evaluation
· Observation/measurements of overt Advantages
behaviour e.g expression, speech rate · Objective
· Glass and singer: noise on a cognitive · Easily quantifiable and reliable
task ­ ½ loud, ½ silent ­ noise impairs · Behaviour recorded accurately
accuracy ­ stress from difficult working Disadvantages
conditions impairs performance · Require measures of when a person is
· Glass and singer: noise isn't definitely a stressed/not .. Not always possible
stressor ­ not valid · Need to est stress responses
· Stress in lab ­ short term and artificial
· Consequence of stress measured
· May be aware being observed & beh diff…read more

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Self Report Measures (ask P's to tell us) Evaluation
· PSS ­ Perceived Stress Scale ­ how they Advantages
feel/think ­ number scale ­ 2 people with same
score are not same level of stress · Good for women ­ poss corr ­ not men
· SRRS ­ Social Readjustment Rating Scale ­ · Cheap to administer
identify stressful life events · What person may be experiencing
· Holmes & Rahe ­ when change environment, Disadvantages
stress increases ­ 43 life events... asked 394 to
rate social readjustment required. Life event · Chronic stress?
ranked. Stress score ­ sum of life change units
for events in last 12m. · Subj matter: hassles change daily
· Hassles (irritants) and Uplifts (satisfied) ­ · Differences in people? Age? Gender?
Kanner ­ h/u scale every month and health · Oversimplified ­ 2 less stressful events = 1
questionnaire for 10m. Hassles pos corr with big event
psych symptoms. Hassles much better predictor
of stress than SRRS.…read more

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