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Holism Vs Reductionism
Holism
Emphasis on the whole person.
Gestalt Psychology
Interactionist Approach.
Holism ­ Introduction
Human behaviour is complex.
It should be looked at as a whole rather than in parts.
Holism ­ Gestalt psychology
1915-1945.
Gestalt ­ German, meaning `whole configuration'.
"The whole of behaviour and experience is…

Page 2

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Idiographic Vs Nomothetic
Idiographic
Focus on the individual and recognition of uniqueness.
Private, subjective and conscious experiences.
Qualitative methods of investigation.
Idiographic ­ Introduction
Suggests everyone is unique and therefore everyone should be studied in an individual way.
No general laws are possible because of chance, free will and the…

Page 3

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Gives a superficial understanding ­ people may act the same but for different reasons.
Extensive use of controlled laboratory experiments creates a lack of generalisation to everyday
life.
Idiographic/Nomothetic Working Together
Both have a role but relative value of each depends on the purpose of the research.
Two approaches can…

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Includes the controlling role of different parts of the brain, hormonal system and genetics on
behaviour.
Some studies have indicated a genetic predisposition towards some behaviour.
Determinism ­ Psychic
Represented by Freud's psychodynamic theory.
Human behaviour, thoughts and feelings are caused by the life and death instincts and by
repressed…

Page 5

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Scientifically tested.
Nature ­ Limitations
Neglects the role of the environment.
Often hard to find twins or adoption studies to relate to the topic of interest.
Nurture ­ Introduction
Concerned with the role of the environment.
The environment shapes all of a person's personality and behaviours.
Phenotype.
Nurture ­ Types…

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