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OVERVIEW OF THE EXAM
APPROACHES IN PSYCHOLOGY

TOPICS IN AS AND A2 THAT CAN BE LINKED TO THE APPROACHES

PSYB1 PSYB2 PSYB3
Gender Memory Criminology
Phobias Forgetting Moral development
Aggression Autism Schizophrenia
Personality Social cognition Depression

HOW TO WRITE A TOPIC ANSWER?

AO1 Assumption of the approach.

AO2 Link to…

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AO1 Freud proposed we use unconscious coping strategies known as defence mechanism used by the ego
to protect itself from the conflict between the id and the superego.

AO2 Karl Popper would argue there is no evidence that defence mechanisms exist.

AO1 Psychosexual stages determine our adult personality and we…

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Males have a stronger bond because they bonded as a result of fear.

ELECTRA COMPLEX
This affects females aged five, they have penis envy as a result of hating their mother because they are
incomplete. This converts to penis baby project which is a desire to have a child. To…

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AO2 The behaviourist approach disagrees with Freud's concept of defence mechanisms because it is
unscientific, unfalsifiable, unobservable and not measured objectively (Karl Popper).

THERAPIES OF PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH
AO1 Psychoanalysis is a directed therapy where the therapist has all the power to access the unconscious
mind and repressed information. Four methods…

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WOLF MAN
Wolf Man had depression as a result of the death of his elder sister and father. He went to see Freud from
Russia to Vienna and from dream analysis he found about a dream that he had as a child. He had a dream of
white wolves outside…

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AO2 Freud focused on the defence mechanism repression being the result of past childhood experiences,
on the other hand, Jung said we should focus on the past, present and future.

AO1 Jung believed consciousness is what we are aware of and that we experience the world in four
different ways:…

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4-5 Initiative vs. guilt Sexual curiosity should be
sympathetically handled by
parents.
6-11 Industry vs. inferiority Knowledge and skills relating to
their culture.
12-18 Identity vs. role confusion Young person searches for
coherent personality.
20-30 Intimacy vs. isolation Adult seeks deep and lasting
personal relationships with a
partner of the…

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COMPARISONS TO THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH

Biological:

+ Darwin's evolution theory with survival of the fittest is similar to Eros and Thanatos.

- Aggression is a result of testosterone or genes (XYY), unlike psychodynamic which argues
aggression is a result of Eros and Thanatos.

Cognitive:

- Freud's theory is unscientific as…

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PHOBIAS
Anxiety disorders occur as a result of fixation at the oral stage where characteristics of the stage
becomes evident in adult personality. E.g. nail biting. Psychoanalysis could be used to treat the disorder.

CRIMINOLOGY
Superegos and defence mechanisms.

MORAL DEVELOPMENT
Superegos and complexes.

DEPRESSION
Depression could be treated through…

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