AQAB PSYB3 Abnormal Behaviour

Abnormal Behaviour, Schizophrenia, SAD, Unipolar and Bipolar Depression, Treatment of Abnormal Behaviour

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aAbnormal Behaviour
Affective Disorders ­ Disturbances of affect or mood, when a person may be severely
depressed or manic.
Manic Disorder:
Characterised by lots of energy, enthusiasm, self confidence, happiness and great joy.
Person suffers little need to sleep, delusions of great wealth, accomplishment or power,
sometimes with increased sexual appetite.
There is constant activity and the person goes on spending sprees and get through lots
of money. This disorder may cause a loss of perception of reality, and delusions so this
is sometimes referred to as a "psychotic disorder".
UniPolar (Depression):
The opposite state to mania. Ranging from mild sadness to a highly disabling state.
Symptoms may affect mood, thought and activity levels including general slowing down
of mental and physical activity, lethargy, decreased appetite, lack of sex drive, lack of
appetite for life, loss of initiative, passiveness, suicide attempts, insomnia or increased
sleep and avoidance of social contact.
Mood symptoms include sadness, apathy, selfhatred, guilt
Thought symptoms include thoughts of worthlessness, physical decay and expectation of
BiPolar Disorder (Manic Depression):
Where a person alternates between mania and depression, occurring in about 20% of
depressives. There is often a period of normal behaviour in between and periods of mania and
depression can vary from days to months.
Causes of Affective Disorders:
Genetic Factors:
The tendency to develop affective disorders may be inherited. Evidence is strong for
manicdepressive psychosis, and children or siblings of individuals diagnosed are ten
times more likely than members of the general public (Rosenthal).
M/D has a 95.7% agreement in identical twins and 26.3% agreement in fraternal twins
Kety suggested that affective disorders are caused by neurotransmitter imbalances, and
it is likely that genetic factors exert their influence by disrupting physiological processes
in the brain.
The chemicals involved in the transmission of nerve impulses from one brain cell to
Different chemicals act as neurotransmitters in different parts of the nervous system.
Normal behaviour requires a careful balance. Two thought to be important in

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Noradrenaline is a transmitter at the
synapse of the autonomic nervous system and is secreted by the adrenal glands.
It is a basic transmitter by which a neuron fires another neuron in the central nervous
A consistent finding is that depressed people typically have low levels of noradrenaline,
so their neurons are not fired as often as they should be (Berger).
Serotonin influences neurons in the hypothalamus and limbic system.…read more

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A problem with psychoanalytic theory is that although many depressed people do have
the characteristics described, it is very difficult to prove that they are the result of
maternal loss of love earlier in life.
Behaviourist Theory:
This theory focuses on what is going on now rather than one early experiences. One
reason people may become depressed is that the number of positive reinforcements
they get in their lives decreases.…read more

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The implication for treatment of depression is that a mixture of cognitive therapy and
behaviour therapy should be used to reinforce new beliefs in depressed individuals, that
they can control and influence the events that affect their lives.
Seasonal Affective Disorder:
A new area of psychology although is not a new disorder. Many seem to be aware of
the effects of daylight on their behaviour and that a lack of daylight may be related to
bad temper or depression.…read more

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Therefore, there
may be a disorder of selective attention. Examples of disordered processes include
clang associations, where rhymes and puns form the associating link between ideas.
Word Salad ­ Disconnected words with no apparent relationship.
Neologisms ­ new words which have meaning to the patient but not to the listener. An
example of this is the phrase "sprockeled by an enema with a green band on" (Lyttle).…read more

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Unawareness ­ people diagnosed have traditionally been reported as having no insight
into their condition. This means they don't realise they have a disorder.
Types of Schizophrenia:
Several types have been observed. The symptoms have been seen to cluster in line with age
ranges and variable outcome. In the UK the use of subtypes for diagnostic purposes is gradually
diminishing (Storey) whereas in the US the concept is still used. These subtypes have been
described in terms of US and UK versions.…read more

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Theories on the Causes of Schizophrenia: nature vs nurture
Genetic ­ Twin Studies e.g. Gottesman and Sheilds, Family studies ­ Rosenthal and
adoption studies ­ Heston
These types of studies have been trying to see whether being a blood relative of
someone with schizophrenia means you are more likely to have the same disorder, so
they are looking for a genetic predisposition to the development of schizophrenia.…read more


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