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OVERVIEW OF THE EXAM
APPROACHES IN PSYCHOLOGY
TOPICS IN AS AND A2 THAT CAN BE LINKED TO THE APPROACHES
PSYB1 PSYB2 PSYB3
Gender Memory Criminology
Phobias Forgetting Moral development
Aggression Autism Schizophrenia
Personality Social cognition Depression
HOW TO WRITE A TOPIC ANSWER?
AO1 Assumption of the approach.
AO2 Link to the topic area.
AO2 Compare the explanations to the topic.
PSYCHODYNAMIC
FREUD
AO1 Freud believes that unconscious processes determine our behaviour.
AO2 Karl Popper argued the unconscious is unscientific and unfalsifiable.…read more

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AO1 Freud proposed we use unconscious coping strategies known as defence mechanism used by the ego to
protect itself from the conflict between the id and the superego.
AO2 Karl Popper would argue there is no evidence that defence mechanisms exist.
AO1 Psychosexual stages determine our adult personality and we go through them during childhood:
Oral
Anal
Phallic
Latency
Genital
AO1 Iceberg theory: conscious (aware of), preconscious (semiaware of) and unconscious (unaware of) this
is where the hidden fears, wishes and desires are repressed.…read more

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ELECTRA COMPLEX
This affects females aged five, they have penis envy as a result of hating their mother because they are
incomplete. This converts to penis baby project which is a desire to have a child. To resolve this conflict they
identify with the same sex parent (mam) and this is through activities (such as cooking) and they gain their
superego and gender.
Gilligan argued that this theory was based on Victorian stereotypes of a two person household.
Feminists argued Freud's theory was weak.…read more

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AO2 The behaviourist approach disagrees with Freud's concept of defence mechanisms because it is
unscientific, unfalsifiable, unobservable and not measured objectively (Karl Popper).
THERAPIES OF PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH
AO1 Psychoanalysis is a directed therapy where the therapist has all the power to access the unconscious
mind and repressed information. Four methods allow this:
1. Free association (including ink blots)
2. Dream analysis
3. Hypnosis
AO1 Failure to resolve hidden wishes, desires and fears in the unconscious may lead to mental illnesses, e.g.
depression and anxiety disorders.…read more

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WOLF MAN
Wolf Man had depression as a result of the death of his elder sister and father. He went to see Freud from
Russia to Vienna and from dream analysis he found about a dream that he had as a child. He had a dream of
white wolves outside the window and he feared they were going to eat them.
Freud interpreted this as a result of witnessing his parents having sex. Freud treated him with
psychoanalysis.…read more

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AO1 Jung believed consciousness is what we are aware of and that we experience the world in four different
ways:
Sensing
Intuition guessing and predicting
Feelingemotions
Thinking reasoning and abstract thinking
AO2 Jung believes that individual differences and our personality may determine the extent to in which we
are influenced by the four ways.
E.g. Jung agrees with Eysenck's introvert and extrovert, and personality of the conscious.
AO1 Personal unconscious Jung agrees with Freud's theory of repression and that this information
manifests in our dreams.…read more

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Initiative vs. guilt Sexual curiosity should be
sympathetically handled by
parents.
611 Industry vs. inferiority Knowledge and skills relating to
their culture.
1218 Identity vs. role confusion Young person searches for
coherent personality.
2030 Intimacy vs. isolation Adult seeks deep and lasting
personal relationships with a
partner of the opposite sex.
4064 Generativity vs. stagnation Individual seeks to be productive
and creative as a contribution.
65+ Integrity vs. despair Individual reviews what has been
accomplished in life.…read more

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Darwin's evolution theory with survival of the fittest is similar to Eros and Thanatos.
Aggression is a result of testosterone or genes (XYY), unlike psychodynamic which argues
aggression is a result of Eros and Thanatos.
Cognitive:
Freud's theory is unscientific as proposed by Karl Popper because it is unfalsifiable as it can't be
measured, touched or recorded, whereas, the cognitive theory is scientific through the use of lab
experiments.
Social learning theory:
+ Both believe that identification occurs.…read more

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CRIMINOLOGY
Superegos and defence mechanisms.
MORAL DEVELOPMENT
Superegos and complexes.
DEPRESSION
Depression could be treated through psychoanalysis.
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
Substance abuse happens as a result of the fixation at the oral stage. E.g. smoking and alcoholism.
Psychoanalysis could be used to treat the disorder.
BEHAVIOURIST
AO1 The behaviourist approach assume that we should only study what is objective and observable which is
scientific evidence.
AO2 In contrast to the subjective methods adopted by Freudian methods/concepts, Popper would argue it
was unfalsifiable and unscientific.…read more

Comments

sonya maroke

These notes are amazing! 

Bethany Cunningham

Thank you Sonya! I am grateful for the feedback. Good luck in your exam!

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