Section A: Child Development
Comfort, NOT cupboard love=food.
ST & LT consequences of privatisation.
A Mother figure made of wire mesh that had a feeding mechanism was introduced to the babies along with a Mother figure made of soft material with blankets. Observations showed the monkeys favoured the ‘cloth’ mother despite the fact it does not feed them.
1) Scientific animal study can lead to a cause and effect relationship.
2) Monkeys have similar social behaviour to humans.
1) Unethical to privatise an animal.
+Supports Bowlby’s= lack of maternal bond causes delinquency.
-Food is function of attachment which disagrees with behaviourists who believe food is a reinforcer of emotion.
1) Effects of Institutionalisation= Lower cognitive ability with poor level of reading and social skills lacking.
2) Age related benefits of adoption= Reversible damage
1) 111 Romanian orphans= ½ intellectual deficits and most underweight. 4 years later no sig difference in both intellect and Wight. 52 British-adopted children. Arrive in Britain before 6 months showed sig improvement with substitute care.
2) Isle of Wight study= 6% of 10-11 year olds showed emotional problems and show stressors to be overcrowding, marital discord, death of a close relative of illness of one/both parents.
1) Separation alone is not sufficient to cause negative outcomes.
2) Large scale used.
3) Supported by single case animal experiments.
1) Overoptimistic= To be adopted within six months is unlikely and any longer without private care shows longer lasting consequences.
Disagrees with Bowlby saying:
1) That effects of privatisation can be overcome.
2) Maternal deprivation on its own is not enough to cause delinquency as it can be due to the reason of parental absence.
3) Bowlby muddled deprivation and privatisation.
Function of attachment (internal working model) = A child’s early attachments work as a framework for all future relationships.
LT Consequences of deprivation:
1) Delinquency and psychopathy= permanent lack of feelings.
2) Monotropy= An innate need to attach to one figure (first 2 years).
3) Irreversibility= Lt damage to the child cannot be un-done.
44 juvenile thieves at the clinic with 44 non criminals. Interviewed about early life:
1) 39% of delinquents had up to 6 month’s separation in first 5 years while only 5% in others.
2) 14 affectionless psychopaths, 12 of which separated from mum in first 2 years.
3) 5 children suffered with mild depression, some were severe cases.
Case study with detailed analysis.
1) Nostalgia based interviews can cause inaccuracies.
2) Cause is not shown.
3) Un-scientific methods of assessment.
4) No proof damage is irreversible.
1) Harlow monkey delinquency.
1) Delinquency is caused by circumstance and is not irreversible (Rutter).
2) Schaffer not monotropy and not just maternal but 75% paternal.
3) Children adopted after 7 years can show attachment (Hodges & Tizard).
Stages of attachment:
1) Asocial 0-6 weeks, shows people=objects in affection level.
2) Diffuse 6 weeks-6 months, no obvious preferred attachment.