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The Psychodynamic Approach

Key Figures Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung

Main assumptions
All psychology is predetermined
The unconscious plays a very important role in motivating our
behaviour
Childhood plays an important role in determining adult behaviour

Psychological determinism all behaviour is motivated, and the reasons we
behave in certain ways are…

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SuperegoThis consists of the values and morals of the child, and
develops around the age of five. It is the child's conscience and ego
ideal, a model of what the child would be like to be.

The forces of the superego are often in conflict with the id. The ego…

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Recognisably adult sexual desires become apparent and mature feelings of
love come about.

If the child experiences frustration or gratification during any of these stages
Fixation can occur, this can show itself in adult life. E.g. anal stage fixation
can lead to being an anally retentive person, unusually tidy and…

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Pavlov's Dog Experiment


Pavlov found that the dog learned an association between the bell and
the food. Therefore when the bell rang in stage three the dog assumed
food was on the way and salivation was induced.

Watson's Little Albert Case Study

Watson and Raynor conditioned a fear in a…

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Differences between classical and operant conditioning

Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning

Deals with involuntary behaviour Deals with voluntary behaviour.

Reinforcement strengthens Reinforcement strengthens the
conditioned response but is neutral it conditioned response and is either
works whether the human/animal likes positive or negative.
it or not.

The stimulus comes before the…

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Behaviourism ignores mental processes assuming all behaviour is
down to experience. (Contrast with cognitive)
It can be seen as too scientific, it dehumanises the subject and the
results can sometimes only demonstrate artificial rather than natural
learning.

The Humanistic Approach

Key Figures Carl Rogers

Main Assumptions
The main point of…

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Rogers believed that people are generally good, and had a generally
optimistic view of human nature, he was aware that we all have the capacity
for more negative behaviour. However he believed in the recognition of
choice. These choices depend on social conditioning. The presence of
social conditioning suggests that…

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The development of the computer in the 50's and 60's allowed psychologists
a metaphor to which they could compare human mental processes.
The computer codes info, stores info, uses info and then produces and
output. Cog psychologists adopted this as a model of how human thought
worked.

E.G.
Eye receives…

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