Experiments and Studies for PSYB1

A list of experiments and the aim method results and conclusions

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Who Aim Method Results Conclusion Supports which
conducted theory
the study?
Petersen et To demonstrate A specialised scanner was used to The scans showed The scan Biological theory of
al different levels of measure different levels of brain activity in
that different parts if demonstrated that cortical
activity in the brain the left hemisphere of the cerebral het left hemisphere certain areas of the specialisation
resulting from cortex. Pps were asked on three different
were active according brain are involved with
different types of occasions to (a) listen passively to a list
to the task the different aspects of
language tasks of nouns in a tape recorder (b)think of
people were engaged language. The brain
verbs to attach to a non (e.g. to eat a
with. In (a) Wernicke's scans also showed
cake) and (c)silently read the list of nouns
area is activated from that other areas of the
listening passively to brain were involved,
nouns. In (b) thinking especially when people
of verbs to attach to were asked to link
a noun activated nouns and verbs
Broca's area and together.
other parts of the
brain. In (c) Broca's
area is activated by
silently repeating the
Minnesota To determine the A longitudinal method was used to study Bouchard et al found In measured by Biological theory:
Twin Study genetic and twins both identical and fraternal, so hat identical twins standard intelligence Genetic influences
(Bouchard environmental reared together, so raised apart. Twins had a greater tests has a strong on behaviour (twin
et al) influences on were sent intelligence tests to complete. similarity in genetic basis studies)
intelligence and The Minnesota Twins Study has access to intelligence test
other psychological all twins born in Minnesota between 1961 scores than fraternal
traits. and 1964 twins brought up
together and reared
Gottesman To test the The children of discordant monozygotic For children of These results provide Biological theory:
and diathesis-stress twins and dizygotic twins were looked at discordant good evidence that Genetic influences
Bertelsen theory of to see which children, if any, were monozygotic twins, schizophrenia is on behaviour (twin
schizophrenia by schizophrenic the percentage heritable. However, studies)

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For children of schizophrenic
schizophrenia (one dizygotic twins, 17%
twin had were schizophrenic
schizophrenia and were the parent twin
the other didn't) was schizophrenic.
However, where the
parent twin was not
schizophrenic, this
dropped to 2%
Kety To investigate the (In Denmark over 20yr period) over 5,000 Of the 5,000 adults, 3 The findings provides Biological theory:
incidence of adults who were adopted in early life were were found to have strong evidence for a Genetic influences
schizophrenia in contacted and the incidence of schizophrenia.…read more

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Participants were left playing with the child. male or female.
responses to interact with the child for 3 minutes. When the baby was
Also in the room were some toys: a ball labelled as male,
(typically male toy), a rag (typically femaleparticipants tended
toy) and a plastic ring (gender neutral to use the gender
neutral toy. When
they were told
nothing about the
gender of the child,
female participants
tended to interact
more freely with the
child while male
participants did not.…read more

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In other words, they were not clearly bears as male and readers will present
children identified as either male or female. only 16% of the bears characters as male
Mothers were observed reading the as female.…read more

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In all
cultures men went to
war, and women
stayed at home.
La Investigated They studied the Cheyenne, Blackfeet and Gender roles were Men are not Cross cultural
Fromboise gender roles in Pawnee American Indian tribes of North found to be quite exclusively the studies on gender
et al Native American America, using both observation and different from those aggressors in all
cultures interviews. in traditional western societies
societies.…read more

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Money took this as biological mal with XY
female female hormone, oestrogen. Progress evidence for his chromosomes;
was monitored until early adolescence, theory of neutrality. treating him as a girl
when the family ceased contact with the The later revelations for many years
researchers. Many years later Bruce made suggest that gender appeared not to have
his identity public. He had discontinued reassignment was affected his identity as
oestrogen treatment at the age of 12 not successful male.…read more

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The study over the ten week or attitudes of adult
lasted 10 weeks. Participants were tested period males
before, during and after the treatment on
two anger questionnaires. Parents
spouses and or live-in partners were also
asked to rate the participants on
aggressive behaviour and mood.
Fagot To determine She observed 24 toddlers aged 20-24 Girls were reinforced Parents respond Social Learning
whether parents months, playing at home in the presence for dressing up, differently to the Theory approach to
treated male and of parents.…read more

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After their own sex development
observing the adult choices, the children
were asked which of the two items they
liked the best.
Pavlov Classical He conditioned a hungry dog to associate The dog began to Classical conditioning Social Learning
conditioning the sound of a bell with the feeding time.…read more

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George could play
with dolls if he really
wanted to, although
they recognised that
this was unusual and
maybe not such a
good idea
Boston and To see whether Boys and girls between the ages of three Boys and girls were Since the task requires Cognitive approach
Levy knowledge about to six years were asked to put sequences found to be able to detailed knowledge of to gender
(Gender stereotypically of four pictures in the correct order.…read more

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He was
terrified that a
horse might bite
him. Freud
interpreted the
child's anxiety as
expressing his
unconscious fear
of his father who
has a full dark
beard. The horse
was merely a
symbol of his
father, and the fact
that Hans feared
being bitten by the
horse symbolised
his fear of
castration by the
father.…read more


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