Biotechnology and Gene Technologies (part1), OCR- unit 5, module 1

Biotechnology and Gene Technologies (part1), OCR- unit 5, module 1

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Sameer
  • Created on: 13-05-12 18:42
Preview of Biotechnology and Gene Technologies (part1), OCR- unit 5, module 1

First 411 words of the document:

Sameer Jahabarali Biology
Unit 5 Module 2- Biotechnology and Gene Technologies
Clones are identical copies that describe: genes, cells, organs and organisms which carries the same genetic
information. There are two types of cloning:
Non-reproductive (or therapeutic) cloning is the process that generates identical: cells, tissues and
organs. It is widely useful in medicine to replace damaged tissues (nervous tissues for multiple sclerosis)
and organs (kidney for renal transplant) as:
Is genetically identical to the patient, there is lower chance of rejection from the body
Shorten waiting list for organ donations
They are totipotent (any cell can be created)
Using cloned cells is less dangerous than most operations (e.g. heart transplant)
Reproductive cloning is the process that generates new, identical organisms. This may include:
Vegetative propagation (natural) is where plants like the elm
tree, reproduce as-sexually when damaged, using: root
sucker, basal sprouts or runners. This enables elm's to spread
and grow all around the original trunk in to a clonal patch
(area of colonisation) of new elms, when the tree is
stressed (e.g. felled as part of coppice cycle) or the trunk
dies.
Tissue culture (artificial) is when large amount of identical plants are generated from a small
amount of plant material. One of the methods includes micropropagation by callus, whereby:
An explant (small piece of tissues from the shoot tip) is taken to be cloned
The explant is than placed on a nutrient growth medium
The cells divide in to a callus (mass of undifferentiated cell)
After several week, a single callus is placed in a shoot growth medium (contains
hormones)
A further few week later, the growing shoots will be transferred in to a root
growth medium (contains different hormones concentrations)
The growing plants are than transferred in to a greenhouse to be acclimatised
and grown further
It is than planted outside
Clones in agriculture have been done for many years to artificially propagate valuable plant (plant with
admirable characteristics). It has been carried out through:
Cuttings- a section of a plant is cut at the nodes (leaf joints).
The stem is than treated with plant hormones, to encourage
root growth. The stem is than planted and will grow in to a
clone of the original parent plant

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Sameer Jahabarali Biology
Unit 5 Module 2- Biotechnology and Gene Technologies
Grafting- a shoot section of a woody plant (fruit tree or a rose bush) is planted joined to an already
growing root or stem (root stock). The graft will grow identical to the parent plant, but the root stock
will remain genetically different.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Sameer Jahabarali Biology
Unit 5 Module 2- Biotechnology and Gene Technologies
Biotechnology
Biotechnology is the industrial use of living organisms (or parts of living organisms) to produce food, drugs
or other products.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Sameer Jahabarali Biology
Unit 5 Module 2- Biotechnology and Gene Technologies
Continuous culture- where nutrients are added and products are removed from the fermentation
tank continuously.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Sameer Jahabarali Biology
Unit 5 Module 2- Biotechnology and Gene Technologies
Adsorption- enzymes bind to adsorbing agents (clay, glass beads, resin and porous carbon) by a
combination of hydrophobic interaction and ionic bonds. Gives high reaction rates as active site is
unchanged, however high leakage form as enzyme can easily become detached.
Covalent bonding- enzymes are covalently bonded together and to a
insoluble material (clay) using a cross linking agent (gluteraldehyde or
sepharose).…read more

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all resources »