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A2 Biology Revision Notes Biotechnology and gene technologies


Clones in nature

Natural vegetative propagation

Asexual reproduction in plants takes place naturally in a variety of different ways. For example, a
number of plant species, including the English elm are adapted to reproduce asexually following
damage to the parent plant. This…

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A2 Biology Revision Notes Biotechnology and gene technologies


Advantages and disadvantages of plant cloning in agriculture

Advantages;

Farmers know what the crop plant produced will be like as it is coned from plants with known
features such as high yield, taste, colour and disease-resistance
Farmer's costs are reduced as all…

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A2 Biology Revision Notes Biotechnology and gene technologies




Advantages and disadvantages of cloning animals

Advantages Disadvantages
High-value animals (e.g. cows giving high milk High value animals aren't necessarily produces
yield) can be cloned in large numbers with animal welfare in mind.
Rare animals can be cloned to preserve species As…

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A2 Biology Revision Notes Biotechnology and gene technologies


Biotechnology basics

Biotechnology ­ technology based on biology and involves the exploitation of living organisms or
biological process to improve; agriculture, animal husbandry, food science, medicine and industry

The use of microorganisms in biotechnology

Many biotechnological processes make use of microorganisms. The…

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A2 Biology Revision Notes Biotechnology and gene technologies


Primary and secondary metabolites

Primary metabolites ­ substances produced by an organism as part of its normal growth.

They include;

Amino acids
Proteins
Enzymes
Nucleic acids
Ethanol
Lactate

Production of primary metabolites matches the growth in population of the organism

All microorganisms…

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A2 Biology Revision Notes Biotechnology and gene technologies


Very useful for processes involving production of Very useful for processes involving production of primary
secondary metabolites metabolites
Importance of manipulating growing conditions

The precise growing conditions depend on the microorganism being cultures, and on whether the
process is designed to produce…

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A2 Biology Revision Notes Biotechnology and gene technologies


However, if the enzyme molecules are held so their active site is not changed and is
displayed, adsorption can give very high reaction rates

Covalent bonding

Enzyme molecules are covalently bonded to a
support, often by covalently linking enzymes
together and to…

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A2 Biology Revision Notes Biotechnology and gene technologies


The sequencing reaction can only operate on a small length of DNA. This means that the genome must
be broken up and sequenced in sections. In order to ensure that the assembled code is accurate,
sequencing is carried out a number of…

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A2 Biology Revision Notes Biotechnology and gene technologies


Electrophoresis is used to separate DNA fragments based on their size. It is widely used in gene
technology to separate DMA fragments for identification and analysis. The technique uses a gel plate
containing aragose (a sugar) which is covered in buffer solution.…

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A2 Biology Revision Notes Biotechnology and gene technologies


Mixture is heated to 95°C. This breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the complementary
strands together, so making the samples single-stranded
Short lengths of single-stranded DNA are added. These are called primers
Temperature is reduced to around 55°C, allowing the primers to bind…

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Swallowtail

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A complete and detailed set of notes on biotechnology and gene technologies that contain lots of coloured images and flow diagrams to help illustrate the key points. Although written with the OCR A2 Biotechnology specification in mind, these notes would be useful for any student needing to study these topics.

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