F215 OCR A2 Biology Module 2 Biotechnology and Gene technologies

This is a long piece of work answering all aspects of the specification. It is along the same lines as the module 1 that I put on earlier on in the week. 

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F215-Module 2-Biotechnology and Gene Technologies

5.2.1-Cloning in Plants and Animals

a. Outline the differences between reproductive and non-reproductive cloning

Reproductive cloning Non-reproductive cloning
Making cloned animals using eggs Using cloned cells to generate
and sperm. cells, tissues and organs to replace
Splitting embryos to make those damaged.
artificial identical twins.…

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o After a few weeks, single callus cells are removed from the mass and
placed on a growing medium containing plant hormones to encourage
shoot growth.
o After another few weeks, the shoots are transferred onto a different
growing medium containing different hormone concentrations that
encourage root growth.
o The…

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o An egg (ovum) that is haploid is taken from another adult and the nucleus
is removed making an enucleated cell.

o Using electro-fusion the nucleus is removed from the differentiated cell
and placed into the enucleated ovum.

o The cell is then placed into the uterus of another sheep.…

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o Cheese and yogurt making

Lactobacillus in milk changes the flavour and texture.

Bacteria prevent the growth of other bacteria that would cause

o Mycoprotein

Quorn/meat alternatives.

Fusarium is grown in culture.

Fungal mycelium is produced and separated which is to be
processed as a food.

o Naturally brewed…

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They respire anaerobically and produce gases that can be used as

Biomedication of waste

o Waste water treatment

Bacteria and fungi use organic waste in the water as nutrients
making the water harmless.

E.g. Fusarium is grown on corn steep liquor which is a waste
product of the corn…

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Lag phase

o The organisms may be taking in water, undergoing cell expansion,
activating specific genes and synthesising specific enzymes.

Log phase

o Sometimes known as the exponential phase.

o Population size increases each generation.

o There is enough space and nutrients to reproduce.

o Low amount of limiting factors.…

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o Enzymes are covalently bonded to a support by covalently linking
enzymes together to an insoluble material like clay.

o A cross-bonding link agent is used like gluteraldehyde or sepharose.

o It does not immobilise a large quantity of enzyme.

o The binding is very strong so there is very…

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Set up is difficult and maintenance Easy to set up and maintain.
is harder.
If contamination occurs, only one
If contamination occurs, large batch is lost.
volumes may be lost.
Less efficient as only one batch is
More efficient because the made at a time.
fermenter operates continuously.
Useful for…

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o Timing can be manipulated depending on whether a secondary or primary
metabolite is wanted.

Oxygen concentration

o A lack of oxygen could lead to unwanted products of anaerobic
respiration and can reduce the growth rate.


o A change in pH can lead to the reduction of enzyme activity…

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Comparing genes of different species can show evolutionary relationships. This
is because the more DNA sequences that they share, the closer related they

Comparing genes for the same or similar proteins across a range of organisms is
known as comparative gene mapping.

You can model the effect of changes…


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