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Stress
Body's response to stress
Stress related illnesses
Life changes
Daily Hassels
Workplace stress
Personality factors (type A and type B behaviour)
Stress management (therapies)
Social psychology
Conformity
Explanations
Obedience
Explanations
Independent behaviour
Abnormality
Definition
Biological approach
Psychological approach
Biological Therapies
Psychological Therapies…read more

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BODYS RESPONSE TO STRESS
G.A.S - General Adaptation
Syndrome
Stress is experienced when a persons
perceived environment, social and physical 1. Alarm reaction = SHOCK PHASE
demands exceed their perceived ability to
cope 2. Counter shock phase = sympathomedullary pathway
(short term) or pituitary adrenal system (long term)
The body's stress response was especially
important for our ancestors because the 3.…read more

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Body's reaction to stress
pupils increase in
size Sweat glands
= let more light stimulated
= produce more
sweat
Bronchial
heart rate tubes in lungs
increases dilate
= greater blood = greater oxygen
flow to muscles
Adrenal medulla
stimulated to
Glycogen stored release
in liver is adrenaline
converted to
glucose
= more energy
Immune response
- lymphocytes produce antibodies that bind the antigens together
- This allows phagocytes to engulf and digest the pathogen
- memory cells remain in your blood for decades to provide…read more

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Stress and immune functioning
Kiecolt-Glaser et al investigated the stress of short term stressors on
immune system functioning in medical students
- Blood samples were taken one month before the exams (low stress) and
during the exam period itself (high stress)
- It was assessed by measuring NK cell activity in blood samples
-participants also completed a questionnaire to measure other life
stressors they were experiencing
NK CELLS They found that:
= natural killer - NK cell activity was reduced in the second blood sample…read more

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Evaluation
Consequences of the stress response
- problems arise when the stress response system is repeatedly activated as the cardiovascular
system begins to suffer from abnormal wear and tear
- increased blood pressure leads to damage in the delicate linings of blood vessels = heart
disease
- Too much cortisol suppresses the immune response
Individual differences
- The hormone oxytocin makes people less anxious and more sociable and the female hormone
oestrogen amplifies this whereas male hormones reduce this = men more vulnerable to health…read more

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Stressor types
- Minor stressors
Daily Hassles - Day to day causes
of stress
- e.g. chores
- Personal
Life changes stressors
- e.g. Marriage or
Divorce
- Major stressors
Cataclysmic - Effect millions
events
- e.g.…read more

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Life changes
Holmes and Rahe - developed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
- measured in LCU's (life change units)
Examples:
Death of a spouse = 100
Divorce = 73
Christmas = 12
Pregnancy = 40
Marriage = 50
Rahe used a military version of the SRRS and was given to 2700 their mean age was 22
-he assessed recent life changes (past 6 months)
- LCU points correlated with illness scores from health records
- Positive relationship found between high LCU scores and illness…read more

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Daily Hassles
The Hassles and uplift scale measures respondents attitudes towards daily situations instead of
focusing on the more highly stressful events
Daily Hassles included:
Missing the
bus
Queues
Household
chores Too little
sleep
- Kanner found that it was a better indicator for stress levels than the SRRS
Bouteyre et al investigated the relationship between daily Hassles and the mental health of
students during the initial transition between school and university
- 41% of the students studied suffered from depressive symptoms
- positive correlation…read more

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Work place stress
WORKLOAD
Underload = Bordem = Stress
Overload = Frustration as not enough time = Stress
CONTROL
No control = frustrated as no priorities
Underload Lack of control = frustrated - feel powerless = stressed Overload
Johanson
- 14 Swedish saw mill participants = Woodworkers = repetitive and no control
- 10 Control participants = Cleaners = lots of control
Stress hormones (noradrenaline and adrenaline) measured in urine both at
home and at work
-Higher stress levels found in Swedish Sawmill workers
=…read more

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