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AS PSYCHOLOGY
AQA
AS Resit




PSYA2

STRESS, CONFORMITY
& ABNORMALITY

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Stress
Body's response to stress
Stress related illnesses
Life changes
Daily Hassels
Workplace stress
Personality factors (type A and type B behaviour)
Stress management (therapies)

Social psychology
Conformity
Explanations
Obedience
Explanations
Independent behaviour

Abnormality
Definition
Biological approach
Psychological approach
Biological Therapies
Psychological Therapies

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BODYS RESPONSE TO STRESS
G.A.S - General Adaptation
Syndrome
Stress is experienced when a persons
perceived environment, social and physical 1. Alarm reaction = SHOCK PHASE
demands exceed their perceived ability to
cope 2. Counter shock phase = sympathomedullary pathway
(short term) or pituitary adrenal system (long term)
The body's…

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Body's reaction to stress

pupils increase in
size Sweat glands
= let more light stimulated
= produce more
sweat



Bronchial
heart rate tubes in lungs
increases dilate
= greater blood = greater oxygen
flow to muscles




Adrenal medulla
stimulated to
Glycogen stored release
in liver is adrenaline
converted to
glucose…

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Stress and immune functioning
Kiecolt-Glaser et al investigated the stress of short term stressors on
immune system functioning in medical students
- Blood samples were taken one month before the exams (low stress) and
during the exam period itself (high stress)
- It was assessed by measuring NK cell activity…

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Evaluation
Consequences of the stress response
- problems arise when the stress response system is repeatedly activated as the cardiovascular
system begins to suffer from abnormal wear and tear
- increased blood pressure leads to damage in the delicate linings of blood vessels = heart
disease
- Too much cortisol…

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Stressor types

- Minor stressors

Daily Hassles - Day to day causes
of stress

- e.g. chores




- Personal
Life changes stressors

- e.g. Marriage or
Divorce




- Major stressors
Cataclysmic - Effect millions
events
- e.g. 9/11

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Life changes
Holmes and Rahe - developed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
- measured in LCU's (life change units)




Examples:



Death of a spouse = 100



Divorce = 73




Christmas = 12


Pregnancy = 40


Marriage = 50




Rahe used a military version of the SRRS and was given…

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Daily Hassles
The Hassles and uplift scale measures respondents attitudes towards daily situations instead of
focusing on the more highly stressful events

Daily Hassles included:
Missing the
bus

Queues
Household
chores Too little
sleep



- Kanner found that it was a better indicator for stress levels than the SRRS

Bouteyre…

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Work place stress

WORKLOAD
Underload = Bordem = Stress
Overload = Frustration as not enough time = Stress



CONTROL
No control = frustrated as no priorities
Underload Lack of control = frustrated - feel powerless = stressed Overload


Johanson
- 14 Swedish saw mill participants = Woodworkers = repetitive and…

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