AQA AS Energy Revison

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Key Terms for the Topic:

1. Primary Energy = energy released from a direct source

2. Secondary Energy = energy convereted into a different form

3. Renewable Resources = resources able to be replenished at a similar rate to which they are used, known as flow resources

4. Non-Renewable Resources = resources which will run out without being able to be replaced, known as stock resources

5. Primary Energy Mix = the amount of each resource used

6 TNC's = Transnational Corporations are companies that operate in more than one country

7. Geopolitics = energy security for governments

8. Energy Security = the extent to which affordable, reliable and stable energy supply can be achieved

9. Appropriate Technology = simple and low-cost technologies that are made and maintained using local knowledge and resources, suiting the economic and technological development of a country

The Production of Energy:

Areas with large Oil reserves: Middle East, Indonesia, UK, Russia, Canada, USA

Areas with large Coal reserves: Russia, Canada, Indonesia, Australia, Asia

Areas with large Gas reserves: UK, Canada, Russia, Indonesia, USA

The Resources:

Oil: 

Primary Energy Mix = 33.6%

Lifespan = 40 years

Coal: 

Primary Energy Mix = 19.2%

Lifespan = 250 years

Gas:

Primary Energy Mix = 34.6%

Lifespan = 60 years

Transnational Corporations Case Studies:

1. BP

- mainly works with Oil and Gas, its headquarters located in the UK

- they operate in over 80 countries

- they explore for and extract Oil from all over the World, sites usually being in LEDC's. There are 26 exploration sites overall

- they mainly sell ot MEDC's, acquiring 17 worldwide refineries

2. ExxonMobil

- mainly work with Oil and Gas in the USA

- operates in over 200 countries

- they are able to explore for the resources in every continent except Antarctica

- they use their own transportation system to transport to distribution centres

Nuclear Power as an alternative:

Primary Energy Mix = 7.8%

439 reactors in 31 countries

They supply 75% of the world's electricity

Advantages:

- low Carbon Dioxide emissions (these are usually responsible for 55% of the enhanced greenhous gas effect)

- no smoke production (this becomes smog when mixing with water vapour, staining buildings and affecting human health)

- no release of Sulphur Dioxide or Nitrous Oxide which cause Acid Rain

- it is a cheap energy source when built

- Uranium is more accessible than Oil as it comes form more politically stable areas e.g. Asia

- reliable resource

- efficient in terms of landuse (uses 200-400 acres to generate a similar amount of energy that a wind farm produces using 150,000-180,000 acres)

Disadvantages:

- the power stations have a limited lifespan of 60 years, after this time they need to be decommisioned which takes decades and involves dealing with radioactivity

- Non-Renewable because Uranium will eventually run out

- the construction of the power station is expensive

- the risks arising from a possible accident are incredibly high (risk of a Chernobyl)

- produces high…

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