PY2 - Core Studies

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  • Created by: Hannah
  • Created on: 17-01-14 18:50

MILGRAM - AIMS AND CONTEXT

Context and Aims:

  • Milgram has a Jewish Background
  • Hannah reflected on Adolf Eichman behaviour - One of the Nazi Leader's
  • Claimed that He was just obeying audience - Not sadistic
  • "Germans are Different" Hypothesis
  • Authorian Personality
  • German Behaviour- Dispositional, Internal factors?
  • Milgram new as a society we all obey but would we really obey to distructive behaviour?
  • It's undesired to obey unjust authority
  • AIMED - to create a situation where he could measure the extent of obidience 
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MILGRAM - PROCEDURE

Procedure: 

  • Sample - 40 Males who responded to a newspaper add (volunteer) - Age 20-50. 
  • Payed $4.50 Dollars - even if they left the study. 
  • They were told it was a study about memory and learning. 
  • The Naiive Participent = Teache
  • The Confedereate = Student 
  • The 'Student' was strapped to an electric chair 
  • The Teacher was with the Shock machine which was labelled 'Slight Shock' 'Intense Shock' and 'XXX'
  • Teacher was told to administrate a shock when the student gave a wrong answer and then increase it as he does on 
  • Student couldn't protest until 300 Volts 
  • The experimenter was told to respond to any hesitation from the experiment with Four standrard points 
  • Debriefed them at the end and then conducted an interview 
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MILGRAM - FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION

Findings:

  • Before the study Milgram asked 14 YALE Psychology students to estimate how many participents were going to go over 450 - 0% to 3%
  • Only five did not go up to 350 Volts
  • 26/40 Participents gave the full 450 Administreated the 450 volts 
  • Signs of extreme stress, e.g. 'sweat,tremble,stutter etc' 
  • Recorded the participents - Qualative Data 
  • After the study -  92% off participents filled in a questionnaire. 84% were (very)glad they participated, 15% was neutral and 2% was very sorry to have taken part

Conclusions:

  • Situational Factors cause people to obey 
  • Milgram identified why people were willing to obey in this situation, example:
  • Prestige, Trustworthiness,Learninger's willingness, Obligation, Novel situation, Important scientific gains, Conflicting demands and Quick responses required 
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MILGRAM - METHODOLOGY

Lab Experiment:

  • Strength - high control, cause and effect relationship 
  • Weaknow ecological validity, demand characteristics 

Internal Validity:

  • Orne and Holland claimed that the participents did know the shocks was not real, However Milgram responds that 75% of the participents strongly believed that the shocks were real

Ecological Validity: 

  • Findings have been confirmed in other cultures - Smith and Bond 
  • Lab experiment is irrelvant

Sample: - Volunteer - Biased sampling, Good variety of backgrounds

Ethical issues:

  • Psychological Harm, Deception and The right to withdraw


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MILGRAM - ALTERNATIVE EVIDENCE

Burger 2009 

  • Replicated Milgram experiment but did not allow 'teachers' to carry on beyond 150 volts; 70% of participents say they would have gone over 
  • Supports Milgram as findings were similar
  • Could argue that the 70% of participents may not have gone through with it.  

Hoffing et al (1966) 

  • 21/22 nurses were willing to obey an order from an unknown Doctor Smith 
  • Develops Milgrams findings as it is in a 'real life setting' 
  • Not just in a lab expierment 

Sheridan and King (1972)

  • Arranged for mix gender participents to give a maximum shock to a puppy (75%- more women) 
  • Contradicts - as they found that close proximity to a victum led to less obidence
  • Is it because of the proximity of the victim? or it wasn't a human?
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Asch - Aims and Context

Context:

  • Previous reasearch looked at the way people formed there opinion in a group situation
  • Jennes - Bean study 
  • Sheriff - Autokenetic effect
  • Asch thought research was limited and lacked impact

Aims:

  • To see if people confirm in unambigious situations 
  • See which one is more affective, Size of majority or it's unamicity
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Asch - Procedure

Sample:

  • 123 U.S male student volunteers from different colleges
  • Believed it was a vision test

The Base Line Study:

  • In each session there was one naiive participent and 6-8 confedereates 
  • Naiive participant was sat one before last or last 
  • Participants were shown two large cards - one with a standard line and the other with 3 various line of various lenghth 
  • They were asked to say which line was the same as the other line - they were a lot different
  • 12/18 trials confederates gave the wrong answer
  • Debriefed at the end of experiment 
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Asch- Findings and Conclusions

Findings:

  • Before study Asch did a control trial - no confederates - less than 1% got it wrong 
  • On critical Trials - 36.8% of naiive participents gave wrong answers too 
  • 25% never gave a wrong answer
  • 75% at least conformed once
  • Truthful partner reduced conformity - 25% 

Conclusion:

  • strong tendancy to confrom to group situations even when situation is unambiguous 
  • certan factors rise conformity such as the size
  • People do resit confirmity
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Asch - Methodology

  • Was not a lab experiment but it was set in a lab setting - high control but low echological validity. 

Validity:

  • Triveal task 
  • Strangers - May not conform with friends
  • Answers were given out loud - Levels of conformity have been found to increase if answeres are given privately 

Sampling:

  • Gender Bias 

Ethical Issues:

  • Deception
  • Psychological harm
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Asch - Alternative Evidence

Perrin and Spencer (1980)

  • Repeated Asch study - only one student conformed on 369 trials 
  • Contradicts Asch findings
  • However may be due to child of it's time and because of the participents choosen 

Smith and Bond (1988) 

  • Reviewd 133 studies carried out kn 17 countries and concluded that collectivist society were more conformist than individulist countries
  • Development - conformity still exist but at different levels

Neto (1995)

  • Found that women are more conformist than men 
  • Devlops Asch Findings 
  • Could argue that this is a gender bias or are women more conformist bilologically?


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Rahe, Mahan and Arthur - Contexts and Aims

Context:

  • GAS - Selye 
  • TB patient  had more of disturbing occurance than the control group - Hawkins et al 
  • 1960 - Rahe and Holmes created the SRE by analysing case studies over 5000 patients
  • This produced a list of 43 critical life events - then asked 400 people to score each event 
  • Scores were averaged to life change units for each life event 
  • Asses LCU scores of people who have been ill and compared them to people who aren't ill 
  • Memory can be distraught 

Aim:

  • To conduct a propsective stufy using 'normal' population to investigate if there is a relationship between life events/changrs and illness
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Rahe,Mahan and Arthur - Procedure

Sample:

  • 2,664 men 
  • naval and marinen personnel serving abroard three US Navy Crusiers
  • Mean Age was 22.3 Years
  • No one new the true aims 

Measuring Life Changes:

  • Were asked to fill in the military version of the SRE 
  • Every 6 months 
  • Self-Administered questionnaire 

Measuring Illness:

  • As each ship returened a research physician went aboard and reviewd all of the sailors health records
  • Sick call visits were excused as it might have been an motive to miss work 
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Rahe,Mahan and Arthur - Procedure

Sample:

  • 2,664 men 
  • naval and marinen personnel serving abroard three US Navy Crusiers
  • Mean Age was 22.3 Years
  • No one new the true aims 

Measuring Life Changes:

  • Were asked to fill in the military version of the SRE 
  • Every 6 months 
  • Self-Administered questionnaire 

Measuring Illness:

  • As each ship returened a research physician went aboard and reviewd all of the sailors health records
  • Sick call visits were excused as it might have been an motive to miss work 
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