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What is a constitution?
The A set of principles, written or unwritten, that establishes
the distribution of power within a political system;
Constitution. relationships between political institutions, the rights of
citizens and methods of amending the constitution.

Types of constitutions: Codified constitution (1).
-Codified and uncodified constitution. Where all the…

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Nature (principles) of constitution (1). Nature (principles) of constitution (2).
-Parliamentary Sovereignty. between executive and Parliament.)
-The Rule of Law (government subject to legal -Constitutional monarchy (although lost lots of power, it
checks and constraints). remain a constitutionally significant body).
-Parliamentary Government (fusion of powers -EU membership (European law higher…

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Constitution under Blair and Brown ('97-'10) (3) Constitution under Blair and Brown ('97-'10) (4).
-Lords Reform: stage one of the reforms, with the BROWN:
removal of all apart from 92, hereditary peers. Through the combination of new conventions and
Constitutional Act, a wide range of powers would, only be

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FOR a codified constitution (1): FOR a codified constitution (2):
1. Clear rules: rules in a single document, crates 3. Neutral interpretation: `policed' by senior judges, who
less confusion about meanings of rules. are above politics, ensure neutrality and impartial
2. Limited government: limits executive decisions.
dictatorship, higher law protected…

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The Monarchy. Functions of Parliament (1).
-The head of state ( the Queen) 1. Legislation: parliament is the supreme legislature in
-Powers: appoint government, opening and the UK and can make or unmake any law it wishes,
dismissing Parliament, The Queen's Speech (when parliamentary sovereignty, parliament allows other
she opens…

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Reforming the House of Lords. FOR an elected second chamber (1).
-Stage one (1999)- saw the removal of all but 92 1. Wider representation: two elected chambers would be
hereditary peers, creating a partially reformed representative, strengthen democratic process.
second chamber. However: stage two is in 2. Better legislation: popular…

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run like court proceedings. Example Lord Hutton's -Rule of law is one of the fundamental of the UK's
enquiry over death of David Kelly ('03). uncodified constitution.

Rule of law (2): Rule of law (3):
- No one is above the law: implies that everyone - Equality before law: the…

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HOWEVER... Are judges neutral? (1)
- One concern is through the appointment of - Definition: absence of any form of partisanship or
judges: used to be controlled by PM and Lord commitment, a refusal to `take sides'.
Chancellor but now changed because of JAC. - Political restrictions: judges are not…

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Judicial reforms (2). What is a bill of rights?
- Judicial Appointments Committee: selecting A document that specifies the rights and freedoms of the
candidates for the appointment of new judges individual, and the legal extent of civil liberties.
Lord Chancellor has less power. - Entrenched bill: higher law, cannot…

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6. Providing national leadership: in case of a -Made up of usually 20-23 members, some being
national crisis, most important. secretaries of state, responsible for running of Whitehall
departments. Meet with PM every Wednesday.

Role of the cabinet (1). Role of the cabinet (2).
1. Formal policy approval: policies have…




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