Detailed psychology knowledge to get an A for OCR GCSE psychology...

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ObservationKids watch people and notice how other Dollard and colleagues used aggression as a drive
people respond to what is said/done, observe which has to find an outlet, and proposed that that
consequences drive, was frustration. Linked with social learning theory
Models The person's behaviour that's being observed. which says the frustration is stimulus and aggression
Models most likely to be similar to kid (same sex, is the response. Frustration occurs when we are unable
family etc.), powerful (parent, teacher) caring (teacher) to reach a goal. This idea was revised by Miller who
Reinforced ( if child sees stuff being rewarded) said that it wasn't as simple as that. A boxer is
vicarious reinforcementobserver reinforces indirectly aggressive but not always frustrated, someone who
Imitationif observer imitates behaviour we know has can't find a job may be withdrawn instead of aggressive.
been learned. E.g. boy punching teddy bear like a hero in Miller proposed that frustration can lead to a variety of
cartoon punched someone else. If other characters responses, and how close we are to achieving the goal,
receive admiration, child even more likely to copy hero. whether the frustrating event is due to chance or
Reinforcementmore likely to perform behaviour if intention, the number and intensity of frustrations that
they're rewarded for doing so. If boy imitates cartoon occur together, and our emotional state all play a part in
character and gets admiration for it from friends, he's the frustration we experience
more likely to continue. Less likely when parents
disapprove as this acts as punishment.
Bandura arranged for a man to hit and kick a large Analysis
inflatable doll whilst a child was in room. Child then had Bandura's results overstressed the power of models.
opportunity to play with a range of toys, including the doll Kids may have thought that they had to copy behaviour
whilst the adult was present. Bandura changed this when they saw the same toy after. Research shown in
procedure in later experiments, because in the real life situations, with other humans, kids showed much
experimental condition he showed a film of someone lower levels of aggression.
being aggressive and the control condition watched a Ethical concerns teaching kids to be aggressive, may
nonviolent film. When kids playing afterwards were have also scared kids when seeing adult being aggressive
watched through one way mirror and number of violent Failed to distinguish between aggression and play
incidents noted. Summary: fighting . Research from Cumberbatch found that kids
Higher levels of aggression from participants who saw who had not seen the inflatable doll before were 5
model of same sex/ Boys performed more aggressive times more likely to imitate aggressive behaviour
acts/ Comments from kids indicated their awareness of than kids who had played with it before. Suggests higher
what was appropriate/ Kids who saw model punished levels of aggression were related to novelty value of toy.
showed lower levels of aggression than when model was Fails to take into account of biological factors
rewarded./When asked to reproduce behaviour,
majority were able to do so regardless of whether the
model had been punished .Kids had learned the
behaviour, even if they didn't imitate it.
Freud believed that humans are born with an instinctive Cultural differences in aggression
to aggress and destroy ourselves, and this energy is Sub culturesReligious groups like Amish/Quakes very
always building up and must be released or it would non violent, but terrorists not like that.
cause unbearable pressure. To stop us destroying Bronfenbrenner found in Russia strong sense of
ourselves, our aggressive drive is aimed outwards and is community spirit but in USA kids more independent and
released through competition, exploration or watching saw aggression in media and sports.
others behave aggressively.(cathartic) Critics argue that

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Cultural contecxt New guinea practice head hunting as
competitive sport reduces aggression, it usually shows part of religious ritual and so not aggressive.
that it increases. Social learning theory explains The more warlike a culture, the more aggressive the
aggression it better. games was found by Ebberson and colleagues.
Laboratory experiment Field experiment
High level of control.…read more

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Observational Method Advantagesby controlling some variables it's possible
Watch and analyse someone's behaviour. Usually more for researchers to draw conclusions from their
than one observer because behaviour is complex and observations Disadvantagesunfamiliar setting may
observer may be biased. Inter observer reliability. affect participants' behaviour, making it less natural
Behaviour noted on an observation schedule Participant observationObserver becomes part of the
researchers must decide what behaviours they will be group of people they wish to observe. They can decide to
analyzing.…read more

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Content Analysis Correlational Study
Researchers analyse content of communication eg If psychologists want to find out what behaviours go
conversation, TV programme, newsreport etc.Used in together.
research on topics like aggression, racism, gender Advantagesprovides info about variable which can't be
stereotyping.…read more

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Cultural Variances in Childcare practices Difficulties in studying various cultures
Ainsworth studied babies in Uganda from 4 months2 Researcher's interpretation of behaviour in another
yrs old, observing them every fortnight and classified as culture may be biased unless researcher from same
securely insecurely attached or not yet attached. Higher culture. Lots of variation within a culture like expt in
the mum's sensitivity and holding of baby, more secure Japan, 1 researcher found a similar % to A, but other
attachment was.…read more

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Lack of stimulation
table on cultural variation in childcare practices) and affection causes developmental probs, not lack
of mother and privation can be overcome with the right
kind of care. A few case studies of severely deprived
kids who was able to recover. Doesn't work when reach
Deprivation Were much more likely to be delinquent. Long term
When child has developed an attachment but is then effects include:
separated from attachment figure.…read more

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If the kid says that if you poured it back into the original
glass it would be the same, this shows reversibility.
Formal operational stage(11+)
The child in previous stage could manipulate things, but
now the kid can manipulate ideas, such as envisaging
relationships. According to Piaget, once the child has
reached this stage there is no further change in the
structure of thinking, only in complexity, flexibility and
level of abstraction.…read more

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Prevailing social norms: In the 1950s when the Asch's
when the group was wrong.Overall,75% participants experiment was done, there was a very strong pro
conformed to the wrong answer at least once. When America/anti communist feel, which meant that
participants were interviewed afterwards, they said that conformity as a whole was higher. In the 60s, conformity
they knew they were giving the wrong answer, but did should have dropped as it was more liberal.…read more

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Factors which affected the level of obedience
pres…read more


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