Slides in this set

Slide 1

Preview of page 1

Rejection.…read more

Slide 2

Preview of page 2

What are the causes of popularity
and rejection?
1. Attractiveness ­ Children prefer to be friends
with those who are attractive, and even young
children have been found to prefer to look at
attractive rahter than unattractive peers. Vaughn
and Langlois (1983) found a significant
correlation between ratings of physical
attractiveness and popularity using a sociometric
analysis of 59 preschool children. There was a
much more significant correlation between the
two variables for the girls than for the boys.…read more

Slide 3

Preview of page 3

What are the causes of popularity
and rejection?
2. Similarity ­ Children will choose friends who live near or who are
seen regularly. Children will also choose playmates from similar
background, of the same sex, with similar interests and so on.
Kandel (1978) identified three types of friendship:
· Maintained friendships ­ existed at the start and the end of the year.
· Dissolved friendships ­ existed at the start but not at the end of the
· Newly formed friendships ­ started up at some time during the year.
It was noted that the maintained and newly formed friendship pairs
were more similar in attitude, behaviour and interests than dissolved
friendship pairs. Kandel concluded that either similarity may be the
key to friendship or successful friendships may be those where
partners come to adopt each other's interests and characteristics.…read more

Slide 4

Preview of page 4

What are the causes of popularity
and rejection?
3. Childhood attachment ­ According to attachment
theory and the internal working model, the relationship
between child and mother figure sets the pattern for
future relationships. Hazan and Shaver (1987) proposed
that the three types of attachment shown in Ainsworth
and Bell's Strange Situation are carried through to later
relationships with other people. Infants identified as
`securely attached' would grow up to be a person who
has similarly positive experiences later in relationships.
Those identified as `anxious-resistant' and `anxious-
avoidant' would be more likely to have difficulty in
childhood and adolescent relationships, be afraid of
getting too close to other people and tend to resist any
attempts at intimacy from others, therefore finding it very
difficult to sustain friendships.…read more

Slide 5

Preview of page 5

What are the causes of popularity
and rejection?
4. Personality characteristics ­ Rejected children seem
to show aggressive and disruptive behaviours, but it is
very difficult to say whether these are a cuase of a
consequence of their rejection. Dodge (1983) arranged
for children ages 6-8 to play together in organised play
sessions over a number of weeks. The children were
tested for personality characteristics before the play
sessions began and were observed during the sessions.
A clear relationship was found between the children's
personality traits at the start of the study and their
popularity within the group. It was also noted that once a
child had been labelled `un-popular' by the group, the
child's behaviour became even more negative ­
therefore, it seems that personality traits may lead to
unpopularity, which becomes self-fulfilling.…read more

Slide 6

Preview of page 6

What are the causes of popularity
and rejection?
5. Social skills ­ A number of studies have shown that one reason for
rejection by peers may be that a child has poor social skills and
therefore experiences difficulty interacting with others. Oden and
Asher (1977) set up a programme of socual skills training for 8 and 9
year old isolates. Training was given in the following areas:
· How to join in.
· Turn taking.
· Sharing.
· Communication.
· Giving attention to others.
· Helping.
At the end of the programme, they were no longer isolated from
their peers, were more outgoing and more positive towards other
people and had improved social skills.…read more

Slide 7

Preview of page 7
Preview of page 7


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »