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Sz is a disorder characterised by a profound disruption of cognition and emotion which affects a person's
language, thought, perception and sense of self.

Classification and Diagnosis:
The publication of DSMIII in 1980 was specifically designed to provide a more reliable system

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Marshall (1990): the better controlled the study, the lower the concordance rate
Difference in concordance rates may reflect environmental similarity rather than role of genetic
factorsenvironments for MZ twins may be more similar than for DZ twins
MZ twins share 100% of their genes but concordance rate is not 100%other…

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Neuroanatomical Factors:
Torrey (2002): the ventricles of a person with Sz are about 15% bigger than normal
Andreasen et al (1990): conducted a CT scan study and found significant enlargement of the ventricles in
Sz patients compared to controls
Szesko et al (1995): the asymmetry found in normal brains in…

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ElectroConvulsive Therapy (ECT):
Tharyan and Adams (2005): a review on 26 studies, studies that compared ECT vs simulated ECT
(placebo)more people improved in the real ECT
Can produce positive results when no other treatments work
Sarita et al (1998): found no difference in symptom reduction between ECT vs simulated ECT…

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Evidence only correlational, not causal
Labelling Theory:
Scheff (1999):13 of 18 studies consistent with predictions of labelling theory
Rosenhan (1973): pseudopatients were labelled
Family Models:
Doublebind Theory:
Bateson (1956): doublebind theory: if a child repeatedly receives contradictory messages, the child
will end up with a false sense of reality and…

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Freud: impossible to establish an appropriate therapeutic relationship with psychotic patients, the
nature of their symptoms (e.g. disordered language/communication) makes them less susceptible to
psychoanalytic techniques
Tarrier (1990): suggested that over stimulation provided by such a therapy can promote a relapse
Drake and Sederer (1986): patients exposed to psychoanalytic therapy…

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