Social Development psyb3 aqa

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Social Development
Early relationships-
Attachment is a long-lasting, emotionally meaningful bond to a specific individual
Stages of attachment, Schaffer and Emerson:
Stage (age) Type of attachment
Asocial Respond in a similar way to people and objects but prefer
(0-6 weeks) to look at human-like stimuli
Diffuse Show no particular preference for a specific individual and
(6 weeks to 6 months) will be comforted by anyone
Single strong attachment Show a strong preference for a single individual and will
(7 to 12 months) show a fear of strangers
Multiple attachments Show attachment towards several figures.
(from 12 months)
Caregiver and infant interactions:
i. Immediate physical contact-
Klaus and Kennel
Mothers who cuddle their baby in the critical period after birth, experience
better relationships with them later on
ii. Imitation-
Melzoff and Moore- 2 to 3 week old infants
Significant association between model and infant
Infants imitate actions shown by the caregiver
Children are innately social beings
iii. Interactional synchrony-
Condon and Sander
Babies co-ordinate their actions in time with adult speech
iv. Modified language-
Snow and Fergusson
Aka. Motherese
Slow, high pitched and repetitive talking from the caregiver
Animal research:
Harlow was the key worker involved in animal research for attachment
Studied behaviour of infant rhesus monkeys that were separated from their mothers
and introduced to two substitute mothers; a cloth mother and a wire mother. They
preferred the cloth mother, even though the wire mother had a food source.
Functions of attachment:
i. Cupboard love theory- Babies attach for food. Harlow's study suggests otherwise

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Proximity- Keeping close to the mother allows us to survive
iii. Communication- Babies attach to the person who can best communicate and
understand them
iv. Internal working model- Early relationships act as a model for future ones.
Measuring attachment:
Observable attachment behaviours-
1. Watching
2. Crying
3. Following
4. Stranger fear
5. Using as a safe base
The Strange Situation-
Mary Ainsworth
Classifications:
Securely attached- happy in mother presence and distressed when mother
leaves. Calm on mothers return. Wary of strangers.…read more

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Started of showing intellectual deficits and most were very underweight
After 4 years, the two groups showed no significant differences
Bowlby's theory of attachment-
One main attachment figure- monotropy
Continuous care from the most important attachment figure
If this is broken during the critical period, child will suffer irreversible long-term
consequences
Maternal deprivation- leads to delinquency and affectionless psychopathy
When the maternal deprivation theory was first proposed, mothers began to question their
child arrangements, leading to many women leaving work.…read more

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Attractiveness
Similarity
Childhood attachment- internal working model (relationship with mother sets
a pattern for future relationships)
Personality characteristics
Social skills
Consequences-
Kuperschmidt and Coie- identified a link between sociometric status and a
number of negative life outcomes: truancy, run-ins with police, school drop
outs, etc.…read more

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