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Persuasion & Attitude

Attitudes are hypothetical constructs ­ things in people's head
which cannot be seen directly. Attitudes are seen as having
three components:
1. The affective component refers to the `feelings' or
emotions associated with the attitude
2. The behavioural component refers to a tendency to act
in a…

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Evidence to Support to Hovland Yale Model
- Fear in messages
- Female Uni Students were divided into 3 Groups
- Each group was given a leaflet on breast examination
1. Loss Condition ­ leaflet with dangers of failing to self-examine
2. Gain Condition ­ leaflet…

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quality of the argument affects whether or not they are persuaded. Attitude change
is likely to be permanent.

2. The Peripheral Route ­ involves minimal cognitive effort. The personal does not
pay much attention or give much thought to the message they are presented with.
They are likely to respond…

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Empirical Evidence to support the ELM

University Students ­ cannot generalise findings to other occupations

Ethnocentric ­ USA study ­ cannot apply findings

Ethical issues ­ possible psychological harm with emotional leaflet

Social desirability bias ­ ppts. May have lied

Individual differences/Extraneous Variables ­ age/gender/profession etc. can
affect their decisions…

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How we decide on why type to use depends on how important/relevant the issue is to
you -
Choosing a University would be Systematic
Choosing a pen colour would be Heuristic

ITO (2002)
- Japanese University Students
- 2 variables were manipulated
Strength of persuasive message (Strong/Weak)
Credibility of source…

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- Beliefs fit easily together e.g. I am against animal cruelty & do not eat meat

2. Dissonant cognitions - distant
- Beliefs clash with each other e.g. I am against animal cruelty but really want those
leather boots

3. Irrelevant cognitions
- Beliefs have no relationship e.g. I am…

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Lab study ­ low extraneous variables

Can use the findings to support other areas of attitude change

Ethnocentric ­ unrepresentative sample

Occupational Bias ­ only students

Gender Bias ­ only males

Low temporal validity (1959)

Unethical ­ deception. However, no ethical guidelines in 1959

Demand characteristics

Lack of mundane realism…

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After putting on a £50 bet were asked `How sure are you that your horse will win?'

Customers were MORE CERTAIN AFTER putting on the bet ­ changed their attitudes
post decision

Attitude One Attitude Two
Attitudes fit so no
Before Bet Not sure they will win No Bet Placed…

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Challenge to dissonance theory

Darryl Bem (1967) ­ people are unaware of exactly what their attitudes are or what
they think of particular issue. We approach our own attitudes in a similar way to which we
approach other peoples
e.g. not speaking to a friend about wanting…

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Concluded that Bem's theory could explain ordinary situations where attitudes &
behaviours differ & we do not hold strong attitudes about an issue
Festingers theory could explain situations where there was an extreme difference
between behaviour and underlying cognitions

Deaux, Dane & Wrightsman (1993) argued…




Your notes are great, thanks! Love all the pictures, it should help me to remember it

Suzanne Gillespie


These look amazing notes but their format seems to have muddled towards the end - is there any chance you could email them to me instead - dead cheeky I know but they are really good??? My email is [email protected] - THANK YOU!!!!



Looks good,

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