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Persuasion & Attitude

Attitudes are hypothetical constructs ­ things in people's head
which cannot be seen directly. Attitudes are seen as having
three components:
1. The affective component refers to the `feelings' or
emotions associated with the attitude
2. The behavioural component refers to a tendency to act
in a…

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Evidence to Support to Hovland Yale Model
MEYEROWITZ & CHAIKEN (1987)
- Fear in messages
- Female Uni Students were divided into 3 Groups
- Each group was given a leaflet on breast examination
1. Loss Condition ­ leaflet with dangers of failing to self-examine
2. Gain Condition ­ leaflet…

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quality of the argument affects whether or not they are persuaded. Attitude change
is likely to be permanent.

2. The Peripheral Route ­ involves minimal cognitive effort. The personal does not
pay much attention or give much thought to the message they are presented with.
They are likely to respond…

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Empirical Evidence to support the ELM




University Students ­ cannot generalise findings to other occupations

Ethnocentric ­ USA study ­ cannot apply findings

Ethical issues ­ possible psychological harm with emotional leaflet

Social desirability bias ­ ppts. May have lied

Individual differences/Extraneous Variables ­ age/gender/profession etc. can
affect their decisions…

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How we decide on why type to use depends on how important/relevant the issue is to
you -
Choosing a University would be Systematic
Choosing a pen colour would be Heuristic

ITO (2002)
- Japanese University Students
- 2 variables were manipulated
Strength of persuasive message (Strong/Weak)
Credibility of source…

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- Beliefs fit easily together e.g. I am against animal cruelty & do not eat meat

2. Dissonant cognitions - distant
- Beliefs clash with each other e.g. I am against animal cruelty but really want those
leather boots

3. Irrelevant cognitions
- Beliefs have no relationship e.g. I am…

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Lab study ­ low extraneous variables

Can use the findings to support other areas of attitude change

Ethnocentric ­ unrepresentative sample

Occupational Bias ­ only students

Gender Bias ­ only males

Low temporal validity (1959)

Unethical ­ deception. However, no ethical guidelines in 1959

Demand characteristics

Lack of mundane realism…

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After putting on a £50 bet were asked `How sure are you that your horse will win?'


Customers were MORE CERTAIN AFTER putting on the bet ­ changed their attitudes
post decision

Attitude One Attitude Two
Attitudes fit so no
Before Bet Not sure they will win No Bet Placed…

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SELF PERCEPTION THEORY
Challenge to dissonance theory

Darryl Bem (1967) ­ people are unaware of exactly what their attitudes are or what
they think of particular issue. We approach our own attitudes in a similar way to which we
approach other peoples
e.g. not speaking to a friend about wanting…

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FAZIO, ZANNA & COOPER (1977)

Concluded that Bem's theory could explain ordinary situations where attitudes &
behaviours differ & we do not hold strong attitudes about an issue
Festingers theory could explain situations where there was an extreme difference
between behaviour and underlying cognitions



Deaux, Dane & Wrightsman (1993) argued…

Comments

Emily

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Your notes are great, thanks! Love all the pictures, it should help me to remember it

Suzanne Gillespie

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These look amazing notes but their format seems to have muddled towards the end - is there any chance you could email them to me instead - dead cheeky I know but they are really good??? My email is [email protected] - THANK YOU!!!!

Hannah

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Looks good,

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