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Outline the Clinical characteristics of depression (2 key
characteristics plus 5 further symptoms)

Depression is a low emotional mood, characterised a significant levels of sadness,
lost of energy and selfworth, and feeling of guilt.
The diagnosis of major depression requires the presence of at least 5 or more the…

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others argue that if there are no diagnosis and medicalization of certain human feelings, there
are potential serious consequences for people with severe symptoms of depression. Perhaps
the problem is not the validity of the diagnosis or labelling, but rather the attitudes attached
to it. For the negative label to…

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Depression is thought stem from the deficiency of noradrenaline in certain brain
circuits. This can explain why depressed people experience withdrawal and lack of
AO2 evaluation:
Bunney et al found that indirect marker of noradrenaline such as urine and cerebral spinal
fluid, are low in depressed individual. In another…

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Wender et al: studied the biological relatives of adopted individuals who had been
hospitalised with severe depression. They found higher incidence of severe depression in the
biological relatives of depressed group than in the nondepressed control group.
This suggests that genetics does play a role, because it separated the effects…

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Psychoactive drugs are a biological therapy used to treat depression, such as such
tricyclics. Theses block the transporter mechanisms that reabsorb noradrenalin and
serotonin in the presynaptic cell after it has fired. As a consequence more neurotransmitters
are available in the cell, prolonging the their action
(SSRIs) is another drug…

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It is said to be highly effective for severe depression, bipolar disorder and in
the treatment of secondary (mood) disorder, in schizophrenics.
Its effectiveness is immediate, which makes it desirable for those with suicidal
thoughts, in comparison to drug treatment with can take weeks.
However, ECT may cause death in…

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than likely trigger their dysfunctional belief, if they experience social rejection, or lack of
recognition for their efforts. Whereas, autonomous individual may triggers their dysfunctional
beliefs, if they fail to meet a set target or goal. The activation of dysfunctional beliefs leads to
biased information, such overgeneralisation of situation, or…

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Describe and Evaluate psychological treatments of depression
Psychodynamic theory (catharsis, dream analysis, projective tests),
CBT (Cognitive triad, ABC diary, cognitive distortion).


CBT is one of the most popular psychological therapies of depression. CBT emphasises
the role of negative (maladaptive thoughts) and thinking in the origins and
maintenance of…

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CBT AO2 Evaluation:
The effectiveness of CBT for depression was demonstrated by a metaanalysis by
Robinson et al (1990). They concluded that CBT was superior in treating noncontrol
groups. However, when these control groups were divided into waiting list and placebo
groups, CBT was no superior to placebo in treatment…

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Some research suggests that psychoanalysis is not only worthless but also damaging.
Esysenck found that 77 % of clients recovered with the GP treatment, while 44%
only with psychoanalysis improved. Other research suggests that 30% of depressive
patients recovered even without treatment.


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