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Effects of EARLY LEARNING on attitudes to food and eating behaviour

Exposure to Food
o The more exposed to food we are, the more we like it.
o Birch and Marlin (1982) ­ introduced 2 year old children to novel foods over a six week
period. One food…

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shift in in their vegetable preference, which was still evident at a follow-up assessment
several weeks later.
Field experiment ­ high ecological validity, but less control over extraneous variables which
could've affected the results.
o Lowe et al (1998) ­ showed a video of `food dudes' to children, expressing enthusiastically…

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o Olivera et al (2000) - to investigate whether acute stress changes food choice during a meal. Eating
attitudes and food preferences of 68 men and women were measured before they allocate to
either stress ­ had to prepare and give a 4 min speech on controversial topic, which would…

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feelings of hunger or feelings of satiety. Set point is good at supervising fat storage, but cannot tell
difference between dieting and starvation. The dieter who begins a diet with a high set point
experiences constant hunger, as a part of her body's attempt to restore status quo. After an…

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Rodin et al (1977) ­ emotional eating and low self-esteem cause obesity motivates them to lose
Ogden (2000) and Ogden and Hills (2008) ­ depression and low self-esteem caused obesity
(psychological factors)
Self-reports ­ social desirability bias
Cultural bias ­ only in westernized countries
Mainly women ­ beta (gender)…

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o Leptin
Hormone released from adipocytes (fat cells) in bloodstream
Acts in the hypothalamus as a satiety signal
As more fat is stored, more leptin is released and hypothalamus is stimulated to reduce food
intake. It's LT.
Carlson (2007) - obese mice don't produce leptin and so they eat continuously…

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Metabolic rate support ­ animals that live in environments where it is difficult to obtain food
should be more impulsive with regard to eating and less willing to delay for a larger amount
of food later over a small amount immediately. Forzano and Logue (1992) found a correlation
between increasing…

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1) Evolutionary Approach
o Reproduction Suppression Model
During our evolutionary past, it is unlikely that food supplies would have been constant,
regular and adequate for the daily needs of a hunter-gatherer population throughout the
year. Therefore our ancestors probably evolved to conserve resources in their adipose…

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o Garfinkel and Garner (1992) have suggested that people with AN have disturbed functioning of the
hypothalamus. Animal research has found that damage to the parts of the hypothalamus in the brain
can result in the animal starving itself to death. Malfunctioning of the hypothalamus might therefore
explain eating disorders…

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Self-reports ­ social desirability/demand characteristics
Longitudinal study ­ could be caused by extraneous variables.


The media transforms social norms and cultural views, so a way of testing the hypothesis is to look at the incidence of
AN in other cultures. Sui-Wah (1989) reported AN is rare in black populations…


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