AQA GCSE History Nazi Germany 1919-1945

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2.1 Hovv vvas Hitler able to
become dictator?
In January 1933 Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. By
August 1934 democracy in Germany was dead and Hitler
was dictator. How did he do this? You will discover the
sequence of events that brought this about and make a
'living graph' of Nazi power to show how Hitler was able
to destroy democracy.
How strong was Hitler's position in January
When Hitler became Chancellor he was in a very weak position.
· Support for the Nazis had fallen from 37 per cent to 33 per cent during
1932. In order to control the Reichstag, Hitler needed over 50 per cent
of the vote. He was a long way from achieving this.
· Hitler could be sacked by President Hindenburg at any time.
· Apart from Hitler, only two other Nazis had been given positions in
the new government. The nine other positions were filled by non-Nazis
whom Hindenburg and Papen thought they could control.
· Hindenburg and Papen planned to use Hitler like a puppet. Papen
boasted to a friend, 'In two months we will have pushed Hitler into a
corner so that he squeaks'.
18 months later ...
By the end of 1934 Hitler was in a totally different position.
· Papen had resigned.
· Hindenburg was dead and Hitler was now President, as well
as Chancellor.
· The army had taken an oath of personal loyalty to Hitler.
· The Nazis were the only political party.
· All threats to the Nazi Party had been removed.
· Hitler had the power to introduce any law he wanted.
How did this happen?

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To be successful in your GCSE exam to you need to create overviews
of key periods within the Enquiry in Depth. As you have seen on
page 44, the period from January 1933 to August 1934 was a crucial
period in which Hitler moved from being a weak Chancellor to an
all-powerful dictator. Producing a living graph is a very good way of
studying this important part of the course.…read more

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Section 2: Control and opposition
Hitler's path to dictatorship
27 February - Reichstag fire
The Reichstag building iD Berlin was destroyed by fire. Marinus var-
der Lubbe, a Dutch Communist, was found at the scene. He appea
to have been acting alone but the Nazis claimed that this was the
start of a Communist plot to take over Germany. That night 4000
Communist leaders were arrested by the police. The next day Hitler
persuaded Hindenburg to grant him emergency powers.…read more

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How was Hitler able to become dictator?
July - All political parties banned communist Democratic Party
A law was introduced that banned people from
Partv Manifesto
forming new political parties. By this stage the Manifesto BANNED
Social Democratic Party and the Communist Party BANNED
had already been banned. Other political parties Social
had broken up. This new law meant that no new Democratic Party
parties could be set up to challenge the Nazis. Manifesto
There was now only one party in Germany.…read more

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How were Hitler and the Nazi Party able to increase their power between
January 1933 and August 1934? [10]
This is a very important question. Avoid danger ... use connectives!
In the space of just eighteen
In answering the question, the aim is to link even
months Hitler was able to go
with their results. You can do this by using result
from being a weak Chancellor to
being an all-powerful dictator.
connectives in each paragraph. You can see so
examples of this below.…read more

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Connecting events and results
Answer the exam question.
· You can use the student's attempt as a starting point.
· Make sure you improve what the student has written for the first
three paragraphs by using the result connectives to help you
explain the importance of each development. Some result
connectives are given on page 48.…read more

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Section 2: Control and opposition
2.2 Hovv effectively did the
Nazis control Germany betvveen Which part of Himmler's
1933 and 1945? terror network do you thin
was most important?
Hitier did not rule Germany on his own. In fact, he didn't
work very hard. He made important decisions but other
people carried them out. These were 'Hitler's henchmen': the
powerful people who actually ran the Nazi empire.…read more

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How effectively did the Nazis control Germany between 1933 and 19457
The Gestapo The police and the courts
This was the state secret The ordinary police continued with their regular
police. They could tap work, but their bosseswere all Nazis. This meant that
telephones, open mail and the police became part of the network of informers,
collect information from a huge collecting information on everyone, whilst ignoring
network of informers. Informers crimes committed by Nazis.…read more

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Section 2: Control and opposition
How big a threat did opposition groups pose
to the Nazis 1
You may have the impression that there was no opposition to the Nazis at
all, but that was not the case. On pages 53-56 you will find out about four
different opposition groups. You will think about why each one was
opposed to Hitler and which one posed the biggest threat to Nazi power.
The Nazis did not want any opposition.…read more

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How effectively did the Nazis control Germany between 1933 and 19457
I Former political opponents
SUPPORT: The Socialist Party, the Communist Party and the trade unions. They were, of course, our
main enemies in the Weimar Republic. They were huge organisations in those days. The parties lost the
elections of 1933 but still have millions of members. So do the trade unions.
AIMS: Restoration of democracy, free speech and workers' democratic rights. The Communists want a
workers' revolution.…read more


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