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Memory ­ The retention of what we learn and what we experience. Psychologists have identified three
main memory processes;

1. Encoding ­ translating information into a form in which it can be used and then putting
that coded information into our memory
2. Storage ­ Process of…

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distractor task. The distractor task stopped the primary-recency effect because the distractor
task took up the limited capacity of the short-term memory
7. Baddeley (1966) conducted coding studies to see how information in different stores is coded.
a. In short-term tasks there is confusion with sound-based word (e.g. mat, mad,…

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i. Articulatory loop ­ Used to rehearse verbal information e.g. used when doing
mental maths or memorizing phone number (inner voice) ­ Baddeley discovered
the word length effect because if articulatory loop had limited capacity
determined by how long it takes to rehearse then more shorter words should
be remembered…

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Levels of processing theory

1. Craik and Lockhart (1972) proposed an alternate to the structural models of memory, focusing
instead on memory processes
2. They suggested that information can be processed at different levels, and this the way in
which information is processed can affect the likelihood of it being…

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Emphasis how processes which occur during learning affect the extent to which material can be
retrieved from long-term memory
Explains why some things e.g. deeply significant and meaningful events, can be readily
remembered without rehearsal
Explains why elaborate rehearsal (weaving a list of words into a story) is more effective…

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patient HM. It showed that HM was unable to gain any new declarative
knowledge but was able to learn new motor skills.

Evaluation of different types of long-term memory

It seems sensible to make a clear distinction between episodic, semantic and procedural
memories in terms of their content, as each…

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b. Biological ­ the prefrontal area of the brain is not fully developed in young infants and
this is why they cannot store any permanent conscious memories (Newcombe et al


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