AQA PSYB2: Psychology (B): Remembering & Forgetting Revision sheets

This is all about remembering. I will hopefully upload a 'forgetting' one soon once I've created it! :-) 

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  • Created on: 30-05-13 18:09
Preview of AQA PSYB2: Psychology (B): Remembering & Forgetting Revision sheets

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REMEMBERING AND FORGETTING
Memory ­ The retention of what we learn and what we experience. Psychologists have identified three
main memory processes;
1. Encoding ­ translating information into a form in which it can be used and then putting
that coded information into our memory
2. Storage ­ Process of retaining the information we have encoded
3. Retrieval - Occurs when we access stored information. Takes different forms;
a. Free recall e.g. when we write exams
b. Cued recall e.g. smell provoking childhood memory
c. Recognition e.g. multiple choice question
MODELS OF MEMORY
The multi-store model
1. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) proposed three separate memory stores/components that vary in
terms of coding, duration and capacity
a. Sensory memory ­ sensory experiences are recorded in the sense organs (stored in the
form it is received) as very brief memory traces and information is lost if not attended
to. Split into two forms;
i. Iconic memory (visual lasts ¼ seconds)
ii. Echoic memory (auditory lasts 4 seconds)
b. Short-term memory ­ When you pay attention to information it is transferred here
(contains 7 (+/- 2) items at a time) and can be extended by verbal rehearsal which
moves it to long-term memory. Short-term memory lasts for 18-30 seconds and is
mainly coded phonologically
c. Long-term memory ­ Contains information by verbal rehearsal and is selected on basis
of meaning to the individual so is coded semantically. It's capacity and duration is
unlimited
2. This model is a good example of the information processing approach, seeing cognitive
processes as a sequence of stages and comparing them with a computer (Eysenck 1993)
3. Several studies support the multi-store model e.g. Sperling (1960) showed a large amount of
sensory information can be stored in sensory memory but it fades very rapidly
4. Digit span tasks were used to investigate the capacity of short-term memory where
participants had to recall sequences of digits/letters and could usually recall 7 items in correct
order supporting the short-term memory.
5. Primary-Recency effect showed that recall of a sequence of items was dependent on the serial
position of the items. Those in the middle are more likely to be forgotten because those at the
start have been mentally rehearsed and have gone into long-term memory and those at the end
are kept in our short-term memory and therefore this effect supports the multi-store model
6. Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) explored the role of rehearsal in relation to short-term memory using
one group that recalled immediately after presentation of words and another who were given a

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The distractor task stopped the primary-recency effect because the distractor
task took up the limited capacity of the short-term memory
7. Baddeley (1966) conducted coding studies to see how information in different stores is coded.
a. In short-term tasks there is confusion with sound-based word (e.g. mat, mad, man, map)
suggesting short-term is coded according to how it sounds; phonetically.
b. In long-term memory tasks there confusion over information with the same or similar
meaning (e.g.…read more

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Articulatory loop ­ Used to rehearse verbal information e.g. used when doing
mental maths or memorizing phone number (inner voice) ­ Baddeley discovered
the word length effect because if articulatory loop had limited capacity
determined by how long it takes to rehearse then more shorter words should
be remembered than longer ones and this was true
ii. Primary acoustic store ­ Received sound and information from the
environment and auditory information from our own internal speech from
articulatory loop e.g.…read more

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Levels of processing theory
1. Craik and Lockhart (1972) proposed an alternate to the structural models of memory, focusing
instead on memory processes
2. They suggested that information can be processed at different levels, and this the way in
which information is processed can affect the likelihood of it being retrieved in the future
3. Depending on what we do with information at the time of encoding, processing can either be
shall and superficial or deep and meaningful
4.…read more

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Emphasis how processes which occur during learning affect the extent to which material can be
retrieved from long-term memory
Explains why some things e.g. deeply significant and meaningful events, can be readily
remembered without rehearsal
Explains why elaborate rehearsal (weaving a list of words into a story) is more effective than
rote rehearsal (simply repeating the information). Since elaborative rehearsal involved thinking
about the meaning of the material, it is a deeper level of processing and therefore leads to
better recall.…read more

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HM. It showed that HM was unable to gain any new declarative
knowledge but was able to learn new motor skills.…read more

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Biological ­ the prefrontal area of the brain is not fully developed in young infants and
this is why they cannot store any permanent conscious memories (Newcombe et al
2000)…read more

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