AQA A2 (B) PSYB4: Approaches, debates and methods in psychology PPT

Hi there.

Just a PPT of all the stuff for the specification (apart from nature vs. nurture debate).

I hope it helps and good luck for your exam!

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PSYB4: Approaches, debates and
methods in psychology.
By Bethany Cunningham…read more

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Behaviourist Cognitive
Social Learning Theory
Biological Humanistic
(SLT)…read more

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Eric Ericson
Melanie Klein
Karl Jung…read more

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Therapies: Tripartite
psychoanalysis Case studies personality…read more

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Overview of Freud
Freud believed that unconscious processes determine our behaviour.
- Karl Popper argued the unconscious is unscientific and unfalsifiable.
+You can tap into the unconscious mind using psychoanalysis: free association, dream analysis and hypnosis.
+Psychoanalysis allows you to treat mental disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders and phobias.
Psychoanalysis is still used today.
The therapist has all the power and this is very subjective.
Freud believes we are motivated by two instinctual drives known as Eros (life instinct: sex and reproduction) and
Thanatos (death, destruction and aggression).
S- This is similar to the biological approach and Darwin's evolution theory: survival of the fittest in that we have an
innate mechanism of reproduction.
D-The biological approach would argue that aggression is a result of testosterone and genes (XYY).
D-In contrast, SLT would argue aggression was a result of the observation of an aggressive model.
The psychodynamic approach suggests that we go through conflicts in life , these are due to the struggles
between the id and the superego. This is a pessimistic view of life.
D-This is in contrast to the optimistic approach of the humanistic who believe we are growth seeking individuals
seeking for self-actualisation.…read more

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The tripartite personality
The psychodynamic approach proposed the tripartite personality: id (pleasure principle), ego (reality principle)
and superego (morality principle).
Freud proposed we use unconscious coping strategies known as defence mechanisms used by the ego to
protect itself from conflict between the id and the superego.
-Karl Popper would argue there is no evidence that defence mechanisms exist.
Psychosexual stages determine our adult personality and we go through them in childhood: oral, anal, phallic,
latency and genital.
Iceberg theory: conscious (aware of), preconscious (semi-aware) and unconscious (unaware of). The
unconscious is where hidden wishes, desires and fears are repressed.
+ The use of psychoanalysis uncovers the unconscious which allows us to treat anxiety disorders (phobias), eating
disorders, depression and substance abuse.
+Defence mechanisms can be used to resolve conflict between the id and the superego or the unresolved
wish/desire could manifest in a dream to release the tension. However, this is a short-term measure.
The libido is a sexual energy which is present in the id and the Eros.
The id and superego never come into contact.…read more

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Bethany Cunningham


Nature vs. nurture debate is explained in my revision notes, if you need help on it. 

Just click on my name and search through my resources.

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