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A2 Psychology Revision
The Psychology of Addictive Behaviour
The DSM criteria for an addiction:
Loss of control
Progressive increase in the instance of the addiction occurring
Continuation of addiction despite negative outcomes.

Biological Models of Addiction
MODEL ONE: GENETICS

Heath and Madden reviewed the evidence from national twin studies in…

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Expectation that gamblers should be "sensation
seekers" is not consistently supported by research
Coventry and Brown (1993) say that offcourse
betting on horse races ­ lower sensation seekers than
nongamblers. BUT casino gamblers were higher
sensation seekers than average.
Bonnaire et al ­ identified 2 distinct types of
gamblers ­…

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Hackam and Redelmeier 2006, say that animal
studies rarely replicate human research, even high
quality studies.





Cognitive Models of Addiction
MODEL ONE: THE SELFMEDICATION MODEL

Initiation ­ Gelkopf et al 2002, suggests that individuals use drugs to treat the psychological symptoms that they
suffer from. Individuals think that the drug…

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Publication Bias only selecting the positive
information to publish rather than any negative
information. So there is contradictory data but it is not
published which lowers reliability.
Addiction or consumption? Most research is looking
at consumption, rather than loss of control (which is
addiction) and therefore lacks validity. The research…

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The Learning Models of Addiction
MODEL ONE: OPERANT CONDITIONING (learning through reinforcement)

Initiation (the role of positive reinforcement) ­ A behaviour is repeated if it is rewarded in one of two ways through
positive reinforcement (a desirable consequence e.g. feeling relaxed, increases the level of dopamine) or through negative
reinforcement…

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Relapse ­ If an individual comes into contact with one of the cues (secondary reinforcers) there is an increase likelihood
of relapse occurring. Smoker smokes, and therefore nicotine enters the body. Then the body tries to maintain
equilibrium. Any stimuli that come before the smoking (e.g. going outside or eating…

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Risk Factors in the Development of Addiction.

EXPLANATION ONE: SELFESTEEM

Stress:
NIDA (1999) shows that addiction is usually developed as a way to deal with daily hassles, such as relationship
problems, money worries and workplace stress. Such stressors can contribute to initiation and continuation of addictions
as well as relapse…

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Cloniger (1987) Tridimensional theory of addictive behaviour: 3 personality traits that predispose individuals to
towards substance dependence.

Novelty seeking: trying to engage in new experiences
Harm avoidance: includes worrying and being pessimistic
Reward dependence: the extent to which an individual learns quickly from rewarding experiences and repeats
the behaviours that…

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making as they have not developed the
prefrontal cortex that adults have.

Personalit Belin et al (2008) placed rats in a device Causality: Most studies are correlation only. It
y where they could administer cocaine to doesn't prove if the personality causes a certain
themselves. One group of rats were…

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they
forget
about
external
influenc
es. The
casino's
uses
this
evidence
to trick
and
seduce
people
into
playing
based
on
"researc
h".
Ethical
issues
in
addicti
on
researc
h: Lee
(1993)
people
may not
be
100%
honest
as it is
SSR
and this
may
mean
that
they
conform
to the…

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