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{Nature, and Theories.…read more

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Uni-factorial models ­ these take the view that intelligence is
a single quality which enables that person to perform well in
a range of intellectual activities and skills. Often linking
which genetic factors and assume it develops independently
of social context.
Hierarchical models ­ these argue that intellectual abilities
exist within a hierarchy. General intelligence is at the top and
different intellectual skills can be seen at lower levels of the
hierarchy. Examples of these include Horn et al (1966) and
Carroll (1993).
Multi-factoral models ­ these take the view that intelligence
is composed of a range of abilities and they highlight the role
of environmental factors and learning in the development of
intelligence. Example: Gardner's theory of multiple
Nature of Intelligence…read more

Slide 3

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Spearman (1904, 1927) argued that intelligence
consisted of a single factor which he called `g' (for
general intelligence).
(although originally Galton (cousin of Charles Darwin)
developed an idea of intelligence in an unscientific way)
He found that people did well on one kind of test usually
did well on other kinds of tests, positive correlation.
So he claimed everyone had a general intelligence that's
genetically determined, and unchangeable.
He also suggested that people develop specific abilities
`s' which are influenced by learning.
Uni-factorial Models & Hierarchical;
Spearman's `G'.…read more

Slide 4

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Horn et al (1966) made a hierarchy of two levels, `g'
or `general intelligence' stood at the top with fluid
intelligence (reasoning ability), crystalized
intelligence (general knowledge), visualization
(spatial abilities), Retrieval (ability to access
memory), and Cognitive Speed (speed of cognitive
Carroll (1993) made a more complex model,
expanding on Horn's.
Hierarchical Models…read more

Slide 5

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Thurstone (1938) gained results which challenged `g'. He found
evidence of different and multiple intelligences.
Guilford (1956, 1959) supported Thurstone, and allowed for a
staggering 180 different intelligences.
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences,
1. Linguistic ­ ability to understand language
2. Logical and Math ­ ability to perform math equations with
3. Spatial ­ ability to understand physical relationships between
objects and maps
4. Musical ­ ability to appreciate or produce music
5. Bodily Kinaesthetic ­ ability to use the body to solve problems,
construct objects or make displays.
6. Intrapersonal ­ ability to be in touch with your own feelings
7. Interpersonal ­ ability to notice and understand empathy
8. Natural ­ ability to recognize man made and natural objects, and
ability to relate to aniamls.
Multi-factorial Models;
Gardner's theory…read more

Slide 6

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In major revision of his theory, Gardner argued that
their was two different types of intelligence profiles;
Searchlight intelligence ­ regular shifting between
different intelligences of roughly equal strength such
as politicians, such as Tony Blair.
Laser-like intelligence ­ dominance by just one or
two of the domains and is characteristic of artists
and scientists who show very high intelligence of
one area but not in others, such as Albert Einstein.
Multi-factorial Models;
Gardner's theory…read more

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