Slides in this set
· Clinical psychology focuses on studying, explaining, and
treating emotional or behavioural disorders
· Asses patients with interviews, observations and
· Researches then gather primary and secondary data to
improve understanding, clinicians then apply this to individual
cases to help them make a proper diagnosis and decide upon
the correct treatment.
· Primary data collected during the researchers observations e.
g. test results, answers to questionnaires, observation notes.
· Secondary data collected during other studies, this data can
be used to check the validity of studies or used to prove or
disprove a new theory.…read more
· Used to find out whether genetic factors influence the development
of mental disorders
· Involves looking at concordance rates the chance that both twins
will develop the mental disorder
· Identical (MZ) twins share all their genetic material, and non-identical
twins (DZ) twins share around half. (if MZ twins are more likely to
develop schizophrenia with a higher concordance rate, than both DZ
twins you can prove a genetic link)
· Shields et al (1966) found that the rate of concordance was 48% for
MZ twins and about 17% for DZ twins. However this is dependant on
what type of schizophrenia but overall the MZ twins had a higher
concordance rate. Suggests a genetic cause, however the results for
MZ doesn't show 100% therefore other factors have come into play
such as environmental, and it is unlikely to replicate this kind of
1. Rich data researchers have the opportunity to study this rare
phenomena in a lot of detail.
2. Unique cases existing theories can be challenged, and ideas for
future research can be suggested.
3. High ecological validity the variables aren't manipulated so the
findings should be true to real life.
1. Casual relationships the researcher doesn't have control over
the variables so the findings could be a result of an extraneous
variable. This means that it's difficult to establish cause and effect.
2. Generalisation only using a single case means it's difficult to
generalise the results to other people.
3. Ethics difficult to get informed consent if the subjects have a
4. Opportunity's identical twins are quiet rare, so there aren't very
many research opportunities and sample sizes are usually pretty
· These are used in psychology because they allow
researchers to carry out studies that cannot be done with
humans due to ethical issues.
· Lipska et al (1993) A lab experiment with rats which had
developed schizophrenia-like symptoms by damaging
areas of the hippocampus using an injection of ibotenic
acid a week after they were born. They found that damage
to the hippocampus can lead to the onset of
schizophrenia-like symptoms, due to the setting of this
experiment it should be easy to establish cause and effect
however you cannot establish whether a rat is having
hallucinations or delusions.…read more
1. Ethics there is no ethical legislation placed on rats
therefore they can do what they like with them.
2. Speed of reproduction rats produce generations really
3. Detachment it's easy to not be attached to rats and be
impartial and objective.
1. Qualitative differences humans and animals are
qualitatively different so there are problems with
generalisation. Substances have a different effect such as
morphine has a calming effect in humans but produces mania
2. Language animals cannot communicate with humans, or
describe their symptoms, therefore it's difficult to know if they
experience mental abnormality.…read more