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· Clinical psychology focuses on studying, explaining, and
treating emotional or behavioural disorders
· Asses patients with interviews, observations and
psychological tests.
· Researches then gather primary and secondary data to
improve understanding, clinicians then apply this to individual
cases to help them make a proper diagnosis and decide upon
the correct treatment.
· Primary data ­ collected during the researchers observations e.
g. test results, answers to questionnaires, observation notes.
· Secondary data ­ collected during other studies, this data can
be used to check the validity of studies or used to prove or
disprove a new theory.…read more

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· Used to find out whether genetic factors influence the development
of mental disorders
· Involves looking at concordance rates ­ the chance that both twins
will develop the mental disorder
· Identical (MZ) twins share all their genetic material, and non-identical
twins (DZ) twins share around half. (if MZ twins are more likely to
develop schizophrenia with a higher concordance rate, than both DZ
twins ­ you can prove a genetic link)
· Shields et al (1966) ­ found that the rate of concordance was 48% for
MZ twins and about 17% for DZ twins. However this is dependant on
what type of schizophrenia but overall the MZ twins had a higher
concordance rate. Suggests a genetic cause, however the results for
MZ doesn't show 100% therefore other factors have come into play
such as environmental, and it is unlikely to replicate this kind of
study.…read more

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· Strengths:
1. Rich data ­ researchers have the opportunity to study this rare
phenomena in a lot of detail.
2. Unique cases ­ existing theories can be challenged, and ideas for
future research can be suggested.
3. High ecological validity ­ the variables aren't manipulated so the
findings should be true to real life.
· Weaknesses:
1. Casual relationships ­ the researcher doesn't have control over
the variables so the findings could be a result of an extraneous
variable. This means that it's difficult to establish cause and effect.
2. Generalisation ­ only using a single case means it's difficult to
generalise the results to other people.
3. Ethics ­ difficult to get informed consent if the subjects have a
mental disorder.
4. Opportunity's ­ identical twins are quiet rare, so there aren't very
many research opportunities and sample sizes are usually pretty
small.…read more

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· These are used in psychology because they allow
researchers to carry out studies that cannot be done with
humans due to ethical issues.
· Lipska et al (1993) ­ A lab experiment with rats which had
developed schizophrenia-like symptoms by damaging
areas of the hippocampus using an injection of ibotenic
acid a week after they were born. They found that damage
to the hippocampus can lead to the onset of
schizophrenia-like symptoms, due to the setting of this
experiment it should be easy to establish cause and effect
however you cannot establish whether a rat is having
hallucinations or delusions.…read more

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· Strengths:
1. Ethics ­ there is no ethical legislation placed on rats
therefore they can do what they like with them.
2. Speed of reproduction ­ rats produce generations really
3. Detachment ­ it's easy to not be attached to rats and be
impartial and objective.
· Weaknesses:
1. Qualitative differences ­ humans and animals are
qualitatively different so there are problems with
generalisation. Substances have a different effect such as
morphine has a calming effect in humans but produces mania
in cats.
2. Language ­ animals cannot communicate with humans, or
describe their symptoms, therefore it's difficult to know if they
experience mental abnormality.…read more

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