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· Addiction ­ state of periodic or chronic intoxication produced by repeated
consumption of a drug, natural or synthetic. `
WHO, 1957
Number of other behaviours which can be seen as addictive ­ gambling,
overeating, sex, exercise, playing computer games and even wealth
acquisition…read more

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Revised definition of addiction
· Addiction ­ repetitive habit pattern that increases risk of disease and/or
associated personal and social problems. Often experienced as a `loss of
control'. These habit patterns are characterised by short term reward and long
term costs. Attempts to change an addictive behaviour are associated with high
relapse rates.
Marlatt et al, 1988…read more

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Addictions are characterised by:
· Self indulgent behaviour
· Short term pleasure (in spite of long term consequences)
· Changes in moods and sensations
· Use the term `dependence' as opposed to `addiction' to gain more marks.
Dependence characterised by cravings to avoid a dysphoric state.
· Dysphoric: state of mind characterised by depression, anxiety and guilt
· Tolerance: occurs when a drug produces a decreased effect after repeated
administrations. An increase in dose is often required to produce the same
affect.…read more

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Models of addictive behaviour
Beliefs Clinical Intervention
· Susceptability · Disease perspective ( e.g. Nicotine replacement)
· Seriousness · Social Learning Perspective ( e.g. Aversion
· Costs therapy, contracts, cue exposure, self- management)
· Benefits
· Expectancies
Initiation Maintenance Cessation as a process
Relapse · Precontemplation
· Contemplation
· Action
Social factors · Maintenance
· Parental Relapse Prevention
behaviour · Coping
·Parental beliefs Public Health Interventions ·Expectancies
·Peer group ·Doctor's advice Self help ·Attributions
pressure ·Community approaches
·Government policy…read more

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Biological Models
aka Disease Models...
Biological models make the following assumptions:
· Addiction is a specific diagnosis (either addict or not)
· Addiction is an illness
· Issue lies within the individual
· Addiction is irreversible
· An emphasis on treatment
· Lerman at al ­ Link between tobacco smoking and genes involved in dopamine
· Comings et al ­ Research into cannabis, cocaine and heroin addiction link to
gene in different brain system.…read more

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