World Cities Notes

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  • World Cities
    • Urbanisation
      • Negative Impacts:
        • Not enough housing for migrants, can't afford to buy/rent, so live on streets.
          • Build their own houses, but on land unsuitable for construction so it is prone to flooding and landslides.
        • Lack of basic services, so disease is common, eg. dysentery and typhoid.
        • Differences in wealth creates social divisions between rich and poor, leads to crime and violence.
        • Children growing up don't have access to education so they work to support their family - hard to escape the slum.
        • High competition for jobs in the formal sector - well paid and regular work.
          • Most end up working in the informal sector - low paid, not regular work and dangerous. No contract, little job security.
        • Rapid population growth puts strain on the resources and public transport - air pollution and congestion.
    • Suburbanisat-ion
      • Push Factors:
        • De-industrialisation of city centres resulted in a loss of jobs. Less money, shops and services forced to close. Fewer local services - people move.
        • Housing in the city centre is poor quality and lacks basic services
      • Pull Factors:
        • Planning restrictions are less strict, and there are new housing estates built. Spacious green environment.
        • Improved public transport and car ownership has meant that more people can commute.
        • Businesses and shops move out to the suburbs as the land is cheaper - more jobs in the suburbs so people move too.
      • Impacts of Suburbanisation on the City centre:
        • Buildings in the city centre are abandoned and become derelict. run down.
        • Wealthier middle class move to the Suburbs, leaving the poorer working class, often immigrants, in the city centre. Social and ethnic segregation.
        • As businesses leave unemployment increases, which leads to lower living standards and poverty.
      • Impacts of Suburbanisation on the Suburbs:
        • More land is built on, disrupting wildlife and habitats.
        • More areas concreted over, more surface run off, higher risk of flooding.
        • More people own cars, people still commute to the city, increased congestion and air pollution.
    • Counter-urbanisation
      • Push Factors:
        • High parking charges and congestion.
        • Air and noise pollution.
        • Increased house prices due to high demand, people don't get value for money.
      • Pull Factors:
        • Houses are less densely packed together, more green open spaces, better quality of life.
        • Improved communication services (eg. wireless internet) means that people can work from home.
        • Increased technological advancements mean that businesses can move from the city to urban areas where the land is cheaper - brings jobs.
        • Increased car ownership and improvements to public transport mean that people can commute further
      • Negative Impacts on rural areas:
        • Developments (eg. housing estates) ruin the character of the rural villages.
        • Increased demand for housing so house prices increase
          • Younger generation can't afford, so population is dominated by older people.
        • Schools may close if population is ageing - no families.
        • Wealthier residents who own cars drive to urban areas to use shops and facilities
          • Local services such as the bus service may close, as might local shops
      • Positive Impacts on rural areas:
        • Farmers can sell lands and property to make money.
        • Old buildings are renovated and repaired
        • Rural schools can stay open due to influx of pupils, so local children don't have to travel far to school.
        • Services such as bars and restaurants see an increases in business as new residents are generally professionals or retired, so have more disposable income
    • Reurbanisation
      • Pull Factors
        • UDCs (Urban Development Corporations) set up in the UK to regenerate declining urban areas, given power to buy land and regenerate.
        • Universities are in cities - students move in
        • Young single people move in to be closer to work in an area with good entertainment and leisure facilities such as clubs.
          • they stay and have children - population grows
      • Push Factors
        • Lack of jobs in rural areas
        • Lack of entertainment and leisure facilities
        • House prices have increased dramatically because of counter-urbanisation
      • Positive impacts on the city centre
        • Tourists are attracted to the city centre - spend money, which boosts economy.
          • Money can be spent further improving the area- attractions/public transport
        • State schools benefit from influx of students
        • People move back in, new shops and services open
          • Creates jobs which reduces unemployment, reduces certain types of crime eg. theft
      • Negative impacts on the city centre
        • original residents, who are generally on lower incomes can't afford the new house prices/rent, so move to a cheaper part of the city
        • Social and economic tensions can arise from this, and can result in violence.
        • Jobs created may be too skilled for the older residents who may have limited skills.
        • Shops and services aimed at newer wealthier residents replace ones for older residents. nowhere to shop.

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