AQA A2 Geography - World Cities

World Cities notes for A2 AQA Geography

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  • Created on: 31-05-13 14:40
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W ORLD C ITIES
HUMAN POPULATION DISTRIBUTION .................................................................................... 2
URBANIZATION............................................................................................................... 2
The causes of urban growth ............................................................................................... 3
Case Study: Mumbai and Dharavi .................................................................................... 3
Slums ...................................................................................................................................... 5
SUBURBANIZATION .......................................................................................................... 6
The development of suburbs ............................................................................................. 6
COUNTER-URBANIZATION ................................................................................................ 8
Why has counter-urbanization occurred? ....................................................................... 8
Case Study: Cambridge and St. Ives ................................................................................ 9
RE-URBANIZATION........................................................................................................ 10
Gentrification...................................................................................................................... 11
Case Study: Notting Hill, London ..................................................................................... 11
URBAN DECLINE ........................................................................................................... 12
Inner city deprivation ........................................................................................................ 13
URBAN REGENERATION ................................................................................................. 14
Property-led regeneration ................................................................................................ 14
Case Study: L.D.D.C........................................................................................................... 14
City Challenge Partnerships ............................................................................................. 16
Case Study: Hulme, Manchester City Challenge Partnership ..................................... 17
RETAILING AND OTHER SERVICES ..................................................................................... 18
Decentralization ................................................................................................................. 18
Case Study: Trafford Centre, Manchester ...................................................................... 20
Responses to decentralization ......................................................................................... 21
Case Study: The redevelopment of Leeds ..................................................................... 21
SUSTAINABILITY IN URBAN AREAS .................................................................................... 22
Waste management ......................................................................................................... 24
Case Study: Zabbaleen, Cairo......................................................................................... 25
Transport Management .................................................................................................... 26
Case Study: Stockholm, Sweden ..................................................................................... 27
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H UMAN POPULATION DISTRIBUTION
On a global scale, rapid urbanization has occurred over the last 50 so that, in 2006,
more than 50% of the world's population lived in cities.
WHAT IS A CITY?
A city is a large urbanized area usual with a very high
population density.
The distinction between a city and a town is poorly defined. However, a city is
usually an urban locality exceeding a certain population size or a town with
particular regional economic and administrative significance.…read more

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THE CAUSES OF URBAN GROWTH
There are two major reasons attributed to urban population growth; natural
population growth and rural-urban migration.
NATURAL POPULATION GROWTH
Urban areas tend to have relatively low age profiles as it is traditionally young adults
who migrate to urban areas. These people are in their fertile years and so have
children. In developing countries, there is often a lack of family planning and a
remaining tradition for families to have many children.…read more

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PROBLEMS
Mumbai grew rapidly between 1970 to 2001 when its population doubled from 5.9
million people to 11.9 million. However, whilst this has brought the city economic
prosperity it has also introduce issues:
The influx of people from the surrounding country side has caused the city to
increase in size. It was originally developed on a peninsular surrounded by sea
and this is now a restriction on further urban growth.…read more

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In total, over 5 million m2 of development will occur.
The effectiveness of these redevelopment plans is highly disputed. Although they will
not go ahead without the consent of the majority of registered residents of Dharavi,
the unregistered residents will not be considered. There are worries that some of the
development planned to rehouse people will instead be given over to industrial and
commercial development, leaving people homeless and without support.…read more

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Water supply being improved with help Poor water supply and sewage disposal.
from authorities. Sewage usually stored
in septic tanks and removed by tanker.
Infections and disease under control. Easy spread of infection and disease.
Illegal hook-ups to the electricity mains Illegal hook-ups to electricity mains, or
which are gradually being improved to no supply at all.
legal (and safe) connections.
Crime, prostitution and drug dealing not Wide spread social issues due to
widespread due to strong social poverty and lack of police control.…read more

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High Density Housing in the Inner Cities was low quality and small. As people
began to become more affluent there was an increased market for larger,
higher quality houses. Due to space issues and land prices, these new
developments had to occur out of the city centre.
Deindustrialization led to many businesses in the inner city closing. As it was in
these businesses that many people were employed this led to high levels of
unemployment and derelict buildings within inner city areas.…read more

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Increasing demand for retail centres in suburbs.
Increased suburban employment opportunities in shops/offices.
VARIETY IN SUBURBS
Not all suburbs in the UK are identical. Those built before planning regulations are
much more random (e.g. Roundhay) and as land value fluctuated, the density of
suburban houses did too. The addition of modern transport routes such as improved
roads and subways have also influenced the pace and style of suburban
development.…read more

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The in-migration of younger, more affluent people which leads to inflated
house prices.
CONSEQUENCES OF COUNTER-URBANIZATION
POSITIVES EFFECTS NEGATIVE EFFECTS
Improvements in local services such as House prices increase and young locals
gas mains and cable TV. cannot afford to buy property.
Supports some local facilities such as Local resentment due to changing
pubs and builders. population structure and culture.
Primary schools and nurseries may `Dormitory village' ­ quiet during the
flourish. day.…read more

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The population of the town is showing an interesting polarization;
one section of the population is aging and the other is becoming more youthful.
Young people are moving to the area because of affordable housing, a high
standard of living and good links with London and other areas for work. Residents of
St Ives often have higher incomes and better life expectancies than many other
places in the UK.…read more

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