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W ORLD C ITIES
HUMAN POPULATION DISTRIBUTION .................................................................................... 2
URBANIZATION............................................................................................................... 2
The causes of urban growth ............................................................................................... 3
Case Study: Mumbai and Dharavi .................................................................................... 3
Slums ...................................................................................................................................... 5

SUBURBANIZATION .......................................................................................................... 6
The development of suburbs ............................................................................................. 6

COUNTER-URBANIZATION ................................................................................................ 8
Why has counter-urbanization occurred? ....................................................................... 8
Case Study: Cambridge and…

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H UMAN POPULATION DISTRIBUTION
On a global scale, rapid urbanization has occurred over the last 50 so that, in 2006,
more than 50% of the world's population lived in cities.

WHAT IS A CITY?

A city is a large urbanized area usual with a very high
population density.
The distinction…

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THE CAUSES OF URBAN GROWTH
There are two major reasons attributed to urban population growth; natural
population growth and rural-urban migration.

NATURAL POPULATION GROWTH
Urban areas tend to have relatively low age profiles as it is traditionally young adults
who migrate to urban areas. These people are in their fertile…

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PROBLEMS
Mumbai grew rapidly between 1970 to 2001 when its population doubled from 5.9
million people to 11.9 million. However, whilst this has brought the city economic
prosperity it has also introduce issues:

The influx of people from the surrounding country side has caused the city to
increase in size.…

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additional 3.7 million m2 of residential and commercial space will be put up
for sale. In total, over 5 million m2 of development will occur.

The effectiveness of these redevelopment plans is highly disputed. Although they will
not go ahead without the consent of the majority of registered residents of…

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Water supply being improved with help Poor water supply and sewage disposal.
from authorities. Sewage usually stored
in septic tanks and removed by tanker.
Infections and disease under control. Easy spread of infection and disease.
Illegal hook-ups to the electricity mains Illegal hook-ups to electricity mains, or
which are gradually…

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High Density Housing in the Inner Cities was low quality and small. As people
began to become more affluent there was an increased market for larger,
higher quality houses. Due to space issues and land prices, these new
developments had to occur out of the city centre.
Deindustrialization led to…

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Increasing demand for retail centres in suburbs.
Increased suburban employment opportunities in shops/offices.

VARIETY IN SUBURBS
Not all suburbs in the UK are identical. Those built before planning regulations are
much more random (e.g. Roundhay) and as land value fluctuated, the density of
suburban houses did too. The addition of…

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4. The in-migration of younger, more affluent people which leads to inflated
house prices.

CONSEQUENCES OF COUNTER-URBANIZATION
POSITIVES EFFECTS NEGATIVE EFFECTS
Improvements in local services such as House prices increase and young locals
gas mains and cable TV. cannot afford to buy property.
Supports some local facilities such as Local…

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population growth. The population of the town is showing an interesting polarization;
one section of the population is aging and the other is becoming more youthful.

Young people are moving to the area because of affordable housing, a high
standard of living and good links with London and other areas…

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