Principles of training

A description of each principle of training.

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  • Principles of training
    • Moderation
      • Training should be done gradually as so not to cause injury. It should not be done everyday but at least every 48hours as reversibility to begin to reverse adaptations
    • Reversibility
      • After 48 hours after training, reversibility begins to occur. Atrophy happens in the muscles.
    • Specificity
      • Training should be sport-specific for the individual. For example, if the individual is a long jumper, the training sessions could focus on leg muscle strength.
    • Variance
      • It is important to vary the activities of training programmes . if activities are always the same, boredom and demotivation can occur. It can prevent the likelihodd of further participation
    • Overload
      • Time spent in each training session
      • Intensity of training sessions
      • Type of trainng eg, interval or continuous
      • Frequency of training sessions
    • Progression
      • Overload leads to progression. Intensity should be increased gradually as adaptations begin to occur.
    • Periodisation
      • Mesocycle - a medium term goal that can last from 4-16 weeks
      • Macrocycle - a long term goal that can last up to a year
      • Microcycle - a short term goal that can last from 1-3 weeks
    • Warm up/Cool down
      • It is important to warm up and cool down before/after every training session. This will prevent the risk injury and DOMs. This can be done through pulses raisers, mobility exercises and stretches.
        • The warm up will increase the blood flow to the muscles to meet the demands of the exercise that is about to occur. The cool down will keep the metabolic rate high to remove lactic acid from the muscles to prevent DOMS.


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