Principles of training

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  • Principles of Training
    • MRS VOP
      • MODERATION - a balance between too much and too littler
      • REVERSIBILITY - reversing a response to physical inactivity 'atrophy' the decrease in the size of muscle cells occurs approx. 48 hours after activity
      • SPECIFICITY - training activity must reflect the demands of the sport.
        • the individual - each performer has a different rate of adaption in response to different training types due to genetic variation
        • the sporting activity - the energy systems, fitness components, movement patterns, muscle fibre type
      • VARIENCE - training needs to be varied to prevent boredom and lack of motivation, helps prevent repetitive strain injuries
      • OVERLOAD - when the body is working harder than its normal capacity and therefore adapting to training (FITT)
      • PROGRESSION - gradually increasing workload
    • Periodisation
      • the organised division of training into a number of specific blocks, periods & phases
      • Objectives - to ensure athletes progressively develop to reach a skill / physiological peak at the correct time for an ultimate sporting target
      • Macro-cycle = long term plan / goal of training, typically lasting at least a year
      • Meso-cycle = medium term plan / goal of training, typically lasting between 4 and 16 weeks
      • Micro-cycle = short term plan / goal lasting one week
      • pre-season, competition season, off-season
      • Benefits
        • ensures many of the principles of training are used in the training programme
        • moderation helps to prevent excessive overload and ensure there are adequate adaptions
    • Warm up
      • pulse raising activity, mobility and stretching
      • Benefits
        • reduces injury
        • release of synovial fluid lubricates joint structure
        • redistribution of blood flow
        • improve enzyme activity for cellular respiration
        • elasticity of muscle / connective tissue
        • muscle temperature increases, increasing speed and strength of contractions
    • Cool down
      • pulse reducing activity, active stretching
      • Benefits
        • maintains venous return, stroke volume, cardiac output, minute ventilation and blood pressure
        • gradually reduces muscle temperature
        • muscles return to their pre-exercise state
        • reduce the risk of injury and DOMs
        • prevents blood pooling & speeds up the removal of lactic acid
    • types of training
      • Continuous
        • exercise at a steady intensity from anything above 30 minutes
        • long distance endurance athletes
      • Fartlek
        • changes in pace, incline and surface
        • prevent boredom
        • stimulate game situations
      • interval
        • period of work dispersed by periods of rest or recovery
        • training around the aerobic threshold has been proven to increase aerobic capacity


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