Memory 2 (Pg52-57)

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  • Created on: 01-09-20 10:55
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  • Memory 2 (Pg 52-)
    • The Working Memory Model (WMM)
      • Baddeley & Hitch (1974)
      • An explanation of how one aspect of memory (STM) is organised and how it functions
      • Concerned with the active "mental space" when we are temporarily storing and manipulating information ie. math problem, learning a language
        • 4 components. each qualitatively different especially in terms of capacity and coding
      • Central Executive
        • The CE has a supervisory role
        • Has very limited processing capacity and does not store information
      • Phonological Loop
        • The PL is one of the slave systems
        • Deals with auditory info= acoustic coding
          • Preserves the order in which info arrives
        • Is subdivided into: The Phonological STORE (stores the words you hear) and the  Articulatory Process (allows maintenance rehearsal = keeps in loop)
          • "Loop" is thought to have a 2 second capacity
      • Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
        • The VSS is the 2nd slave system and stores visual and/or spatial info when needed
        • It has a limited capacity (about 3 objects)
        • It can be subdivided into: the Visual Cache (stores visual data) and the Inner Scribe (records the arrangement of objects in the visual field).
      • Episodic Buffer
        • The EB is the 3rd slave system
        • Added by Baddeley in 2000
        • It's a temporary store for information, integrating visual, spatial and verbal info processed by other stores and maintaining a sense of time-sequencing
          • Can be seen as storage component for CE, but has limited capacity of about 4 chunks.
            • Records events/episodes that occur
        • Links working memory to LTM and wider cognitive processes such as perception
    • Explanations for Forgetting: Interference
      • When 2 pieces of info disrupt each other= forgetting one or both pieces of info, or some distortion of memory
      • Mainly for LTM as once info is in LTM, it's pretty much permanent so if can't remember it's because the memory even though it's available
      • Interference between memories makes them harder to locate, experienced as "forgetting"
      • Types of Interference
        • Proactive Interference: Older memory interferes with new ie. teacher learned so many names in past so can't remember new class names
          • You remember the OLD information
        • Retroactive interference: Newer memory interferes with older one ie. teacher learned so many new names this year, she can't remember the names of students last year
          • You remember NEW info
      • Research on Effects of Similarity
        • McGeoch & McDonald (1931) In both PI and RI, the interference is worse when the memories (or learning) are similar.
          • Could be due to PI- previously-stored info makes new similar info harder to store
            • Could be due to RI- new info overwrites previous similar memories because of the similarity
    • Explanations for Forgetting: Retrieval Failure
      • Forgetting may be due to insufficient cues
      • Initial memory storage= cues stored simultaneously
      • When right cues aren't given, we can't access the memories= retrieval failure
      • Tulving (1983) Encoding Specificity Principle
        • If a cue is going to be helpful, it has to be present at coding (learning) and present at retrieval (recall)
          • If cues available are different from those at coding and needed at retrieval, retrieval failure will occur
        • Some cues are mneumonic= meaningful
      • State-DF
        • Carter & Cassaday (1998) gave antihistamine drugs to pps= mild drowsiness= internal change in state
          • Pps learnt words and passages of prose and then recall learnt on/off drug and recalled on/off drug, of same or reverse. When state wasn't the same, recall was worse.
        • When state cues are absent (state), recall is worse


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