Anomalistic psychology

What did Popper argue about science?
Science progresses through a hypothetico-deductive method.
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What are the key features of a science?
Replicable, falsifiable, observable and measurable
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What did Williams think?
Parapsychology is not a science. US military spent huge amounts of money on testing the existance of remote viewing but found no evidence. In a true science, learn through trial and error.
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What did Mousseau find?
Content analysis of truely scientific and paranormal journals, 57% of scientific contained an experimental method and 24% of parapsychology journals. 12% self citation
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Which piece of research has been accused of fraudulent activity?
Walter J. Levy, rats and gerbils, wired electrodes to the brain which gave a pleasurable feeling 50% of the time, rats could use psychokenesis to trigger more pleasure, Levy unplugged the generator.
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Who found that paranormal articles disconfirmed an idea more often than the scientific journals?
Musseau, it is unfair to criticise parapsychology on the grounds that it ignores evidence and keeps and open mind.
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What do Rao and Palmer see paranormal research as?
Research into unique events that cannot be replicated on demand.
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What did Honerton find?
Carried out a meta-analysis, average 38% correctly identified images which is higher than chance rate.
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What did Hyman find?
There had been a lack of control and therefore flaws in the way that some studies had been conducted which people being able to choose which image to send
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Which study demostrates that there is researcher bias/effects in the Ganzfeld studies?
Wiseman and Schiltz who used CCTV during an ESP task using the Ganzfeld technique. GSR was more active when being watched by Schiltz (psi believer)
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What did Gertrude R. Schmeidler find?
Analysed psi research studied and found that when the researcher is warm and expects positive results, a greater degree of ESP is found
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What are methodological issues of the study of ESP?
Flie drawer effect, researcher bias/effects, early studies lack control and the studies are affected by a sheet-goat effect
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What did Radin and Nelson find?
Meta-analysis, 832 random number generator studies, 51% success rate compared to 50% chance rate
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What did Radin and Ferrari find?
Meta-analysis, 148 studies, statistically significant difference when people asked to influence dice
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What methodological issues are there with psychokenesis studies?
Baised dice, file drawer effect, reliability problems, experimenter effects and some studies let the participants throw the dice with their hands.
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What did Parra and Villanueuva study?
Introversion/extraversion on psi beliefs and experiences. 30 participants Eysenk Personality Inventory. Extroverts scored more highly at correctly identifying the sent image.
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Who studied fantasy proneness?
Wilson and Barber. Studied 27 women who were easy to hypnotise and 26 who were hard to hypnotise. Easy to hypnotise=fantasy prone and more likely to believe they were psychic and have had experienced apparitions.
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What did Gainotti find?
A positive correlation between creative personality types and belief in the paranormal
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Which research contradicts the link between fantasy proneness and psi experience?
Roberts and Honerton
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What are problems with personality factors and anomalous experience research?
The research is correlational and there are individual differences
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Who identified the law of truely large numbers?
Watt- with such a large sample size, coincidence is bound to happen.
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What are pre cognition dreams?
Identified by Watt- dreams where the person feels that they have seen into the future
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What did Zusne and Jones identify?
Prophetic dreams- dreams where the person dreams something which then comes true.
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What did French argue?
Some dreams by coincidence will come true if we assume that people on average recall one dream per night, there is a probability that 3.6% of the population will have a prophetic dream in any one year.
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What is an evaluative study of coincidence and probability judgement?
Blackmore and TroscianKo- sheet and goats, Sheep are more likely to see a coincidence as something out of the ordinary, goats are better at making probability judgements so are less likely to spot that a coincidence may be down to chance factors.
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What studies support coping mechanism?
Lawrence (childhood trauma and magical thinking) Perkins and Allen (students who suffer abuse believe in paranormal) and Irwin (children with alcoholic parents demonstrate magical thinking)
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Who was Jahoda?
Errors in judgement- superstitions are formed because of errors in our perceptual and memory systems. Some people have selective memories when it comes to superstition in that they remember events that fit in with their superstition
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Who was Keinan?
Survival value and need for control- gave questionnaires to 174 Israelis and found that those who were more stressed were more superstitious, used superstition to try to regain control in stressful situations
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What study goes with magical thiking and superstition being learnt?
Skinner, pigeons and skinner boxes, feeding every 15 seconds, after initial conditioning, increased the time, demonstrated superstitious behaviour.
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Which researcher looked at explanations of psychic healing with patients who were in a coronary care unit?
Byrd- divided 393 patients admitted to a coronoary care unit over a 10 month period into one of 2 conditions, a prayer healing group or a group that did not, did not know what group they were in. Found no significant difference.
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Who did Sicher et al study and what did they find?
double blind procedure, 40 advanced AIDs patients, control group for 10 weeks or distant healing group for 6 weeks. Distant healing group had fewer AIDs defining illnesses, fewer hospitalisations and fewer Dr visits.
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What research is contradictory in explanations of psychic healing?
Benson et al, 1800 patients recovering from bypass surgery, 3 conditions, 2 conditions may or may not receive prayer, condition 3 will receive. Condition 3 highest number of complications (59%) (c1+2 51% + 52%)
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What three explanations are there of psychic healing?
Psychic healing works because people believe it does, it works because patients receive more attention than they might from a GP and some psychic healing is the result of fraud
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What are the main strengths and weaknesses of studies into psychic healing?
Individual differences, placebo effect, recovering from the same illness and uses double blind.
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What are the four explanations of psychic mediumship?
Cognitive profiles, cognitive abilities, sceptical hypothesis and dissociative identity disorder
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What are cognitive profiles?
A persons belief system (sheep and goats), Fench- people have selective memories, they remember what fits in with their beliefs. Believers were more likely to inaccurately exaggerate the accuracy of the reading than non believers
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What are cognitive abilities?
Poor cognitive abilities, reasoning skills or lower intelligence is linked to a greater belief in psychic ability. Polzella et al- non believers perform better on syllogistic reasoning tasks, poor reasoning skills affect belief.
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What is the sceptical hypothesis?
Mediums use cold readings, body language and autitory cues to help them. General statements fit a variety of people.
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What research supports the sceptical hypothesis?
O'Keefe and Wiseman- 5 mediums, not met recipients, seek information about them, participants rate the readings for accuracy, average scores 3
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What are the 3 explanations of OBE?
Sleep states, personality and brain activity
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Which explanation for OBE does Green's research criticise?
Sleep states, 400 naturally occuring OBE, 25% OBE were associated with stress, 12% occurred during sleep
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What study is for brain activity for OBE explanations?
Blanke et at- induced OBE in the temporoparietal junction on a 43 year old woman with no previous experience of OBEs by stimulating this part of the brain
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What evaluation research is there of NDE's being proof of the afterlife?
Van Lommel et al- 244 cardiac patients who had been successfully resuscitated, 25% had NDE's, 56% positive feelings, 50% awareness of being dead, 32% saw someone who was already dead and 31% described a tunnel
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What research is there for the dying brain hypothesis?
Augustine- hallucinations produced by the dying brain as a result of hypoxia or hypercarbia
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What evaluation research is there for the dying brain hypothesis?
Sabom measured body gases of those who have experience NDE's but found no abnormal levels
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Card 2


What are the key features of a science?


Replicable, falsifiable, observable and measurable

Card 3


What did Williams think?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What did Mousseau find?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Which piece of research has been accused of fraudulent activity?


Preview of the front of card 5
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