Stress Biological explanations

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  • Created on: 19-09-16 16:13
One acute response to stress?
Sympathomedullary Pathway-The hypothalamus is triggered which triggers the autonomic nervous system. Acute stress arouses the sympathetic branch of the ANS sends a signal to the adrenal medulla to release and noradrenaline.
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Second acute response to stress
Fight or flight-Oxygen is carried to the muscles to make them work harder.
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Another acute response to stress
Link to evolution-Adapted from the ancestors. However their stress stimulus were different from ours as they were required to fight off a lion.
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Fourth Acute response to stress
effects on the heart-stress causes cardiovascular problems. Timo Heidt studied medical staff in intensive care wards- they had lesions that caused heart attack.
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Supporting evidence for the acute stress response
Jonathon Leor et al- Northridge California earthquake caused deaths associated with cardiovascular illness. Cardiomyopathy is a death caused by traumatic events and is broken heart syndrome.
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Stress may not be a causal factor
cardiovascular disease not always caused by stress as Joel Dismdale indicates for example smoking or high cholestrol could cause it.
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gender differences in the acute stress response
The fight or flight response i based on men and women respond differently. Shelley Taylor et al- Tend and befriend. women nurture their young (tend) and make social connections (befriend). Males produce testosterone so the oxytocin levels are ruined.
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response to chronic stress: HPA axis
hypothalamus- releases CRH, pituatory gland- releases ACTH, adrenal gland-releases cortisol
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response to chronic stress: cortisol
regulates glucose storage, regulates immune system and part of central nervous system.
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response to chronic stress: prenatal stress
cortisol crosses the placenta. Thomas O'conner 75 children aged 10 higher cortisol if mothers reported PG related stress
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response to chronic stress: effects on health
Immunosupression-immune system breaks down
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response to chronic stress: effects on memory
cortisol impairs the memory. Sabrina Kuhlmann - administered cortisol to women who wanted to recall 30 words and they couldnt.
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Hans Selye Gas Model
Alertness, resistance, exhaustion
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supports cortisol
Seltzer-Social support-7-12 girls contacted mums after stressful event and found high oxytocin levels and low cortisol levels.
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Issues in research
Cause and effect difficult. factors - eating, sleeping, alcohol, caffeine all higher cortisol levels.
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Stress not always bad
Evans- SiGa antibody protects against infection when giving talk but decreases during examinations.
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Two effects of stress
UP regulation (ST stress) and down regulation (LT stress) (decreased efficiency)
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Implications to the research: stress doesnt always higher cortisol
Miller et al- lack of longitudinal research therefore more research must take place.
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Gender differences in cortisol evidence
Nestor Lopez Duran-boys have a higher response to stress and cortisol activation
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Low levels of cortisol
Bad for health. Holiday syndrome-when cortisol lowers after you relax. Heim-chronic fatigue syndrome, PTSD.
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Hardiness
3x characteristics. - Control, Committment and Challenge. Kobasa and Maddi- some people are more psychologically hard than others.
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how does being hardy help with stress?
Pathway to resilience, AS: coping with stress, self-care,social support is higher. less cortisol so less stress related illnesses.
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Kobasa
800 american executives. 150 PPTs were identified with high stress however they reported low stress related illness because they had three of the hardy characteristics
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Maddi
redudancies in the Bell Tel co. 1/3 of them were hardy so had less SRI - cardiovascular problems,depression.
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Bartone
Hardiness explains why war veterans combat PTSD. US Navy Seals screen for hardiness and give hardiness training.
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problems with measurement
self report,failure to understand question, social desirability. FUNK suggested a uniform approach using RRS this measures all three components equally and things phrased positively e.g i agree this makes me hardy.
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evaluation
sheppard-inconsistent findings with females and males
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Type B and Type A personality
Type A are competitive, impulsive, always in a hurry, hostile, workaholic. type B calm, able to express feelings.
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Link between type A and SRI - fight or flights response
stress hormones such as adrenaline are release in high quanitities leading to higher blood pressure and heart rate. increases the likelihood of coronary heart disease and strokes.
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Western Collaborative Study
Rosemann et al-longitudinal study of men aged 39-59.men categorised as type A or type B. 70% were type A. 12.8% of type A suffered from heart attack. 6% of type B suffered from heart attack.
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Framigham Heart Study
1948-1958- looked at risk factors and CHD. Haymes found type A was associated with 2 fold increase of coronary heart disease over 10 years.
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supporting evidence
Impossible study-wordsearch not all words. Type A personality will get stressed. Type B personality will be calm.
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contradictory evidence
Ragland showed up 257 of the cohort of Western Collaborative group study 22 years to look at long term effects. smoking and cholestrol were important predictors of CHD type B and type A both as likely to smoke and type A more likely to get heart atta
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Issues with the research
culture bias-fight or flight response focuses on men.
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The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
Holmes + Rahe - score of 300+- high risk of illness. score of 150-299-moderate risk of illness, score 150 only slight risk of illness
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Holmes + Rahe
43 life events were taken from 500 patient records. 400 PS scored the life events in terms of the readjustment rating scale =50 marriage. scores for individuals were totalled and average to produce a life change unit for each event
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Life changes
event of life requiring a major change in some aspect of life. sometimes termed as critical life changes.
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Hawkins
compared TB patients to controls. matched on age, race etc. increase in "disturbing occurences" in the TB patients.
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study issues
recall from past, investigates effect, sample bias.
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Beta blockers
block receptors. reduce adrenaline, treat heart problems but can be prescribed as off label medication for stress.
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Two types of beta blockers
Non-selective - B1 and B2 receptors. Selective- B1 receptors.
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Lockwood et al
2000 musicians. 19% use beta blockers daily. 27% used beta blockers.
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Effectiveness of Beta Blockers
Neftel-studied giving ochestra beta blockers or placebo 6.5 hours before propanolol. Beta blockers group enabled the string players to perform better.
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Schweizer
BB vs placebo on a maths test. improved performance on the BB group but the way they percieve stress is the same.
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Benefits of BB
Schwebe -habits rather than stress goals lab experiment 3 conditions; stress with BB, stress with placebo and no stress condition. placebo group continued with habits, BB group as focused as no stress group.
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long term
If you are irritational or type A personality then BB wont work
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Treating symptoms rather than problems
the drug treatments only work for as long as you take them. only perofrmance based cannot be used for chronic stress.
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side effects of BB
insomnia, nauseau, dizziness. mild and temporary effects however. compared with anti-anxiety drugs the effects are minimal. stopping BB can cause heart palpitations. individuals can become dependent on them.
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using bb to enhance performance
Not ethical as performing under pressure is key and BB is banned by International Olympic committee.
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social implications -impact of prescribing off label drugs
given for stress and anxiety but developed for heart problems. Hsiang-Wen Lin et al - reported the proportion of off label beta blockers use was an average of 52% of beta blocker precriptions.
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social implications-possible over prescription
propanolol rose by 7% in 2012-2013
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stress innoculation therapy
innoculation=treating a disease by vaccinating against it.
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in vitro
imagining
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in vevo
apply to real life
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transactional model-
percieving stress and the way to deal with it
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constructive narrative model
becoming your own storyteller
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3 stages to stress innoculation therapy
conceptualisation-relatioship of therapist and client, skills acquisition- building on skills already learnt, application- applying to real life situation.
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Donald Meichenbaum
developer of stress innoculation training
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John Horan and Paul Sheehy
first year law students. given four weekly stress innoculation training. reduced anxiety levels.
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which bit is effective?
Moses and Hollandsworth - 24 dental phobics to four conditions
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other therapies
Edna Foa et al - prolonged exposure. in women dealing with sexual abuse found that prolonged exposure helped them to deal with their events
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risk of harm
being asked to recall stressful events
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SIT in the military
Friedland and Kienan - found that special forces can deal with acute stress on the battlefront not in the home dealing with chronic life events to do with family members. (Robson and Mana Capilli)
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society and SIT
donald meichenbaum- useful to help us to combat stressors in society such as terrorist attacks.
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Daily hassles
day to day irritations that lower well-being
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Uplifts
distract from daily hassles.
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Kanner et al
100 PPT. Given hassles and uplifts scale (HSUP). negative correlation between hassles and well-being.
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why might hassles have an effect?
accumulation effect- build up of hassles, amplication effect- life event makes hassles seem huge. lack of social support-Gordon flett et al-320 students to read a story describing individuals who had experienced a life event or daily hassle.
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gordon flett et al
320 students to read a story describing an individual who has had a life event or daily hassle and must rate in terms of the social support needed a life event needs more so may suggest why we suffer from mental health issues due to hassles.
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supporting evidence
Evelyn Bouteyre et al - 233 french students. from school to university. 41% suffered depressive symptoms. the risk factors were daily hassles.
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contradictory evidence. (Age differences)
Carolyn Aldwin - 1389 male participants, 48 to 101. at 48 and 70 less hassles suffered.
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The scale may measure psychiatric problems not hassles.
Barbara Dohrenwend et al - 371 clinic psychologists to assess HSUP scale and found a large degree of overlap items on the scale and the symptoms of psychological disorders.
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Issue with self-report.
there are a number of problems with using self-report measures such as questionnaires. social desirability bias is one issue.,
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Card 2

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Second acute response to stress

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Fight or flight-Oxygen is carried to the muscles to make them work harder.

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Another acute response to stress

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Card 4

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Fourth Acute response to stress

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Card 5

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Supporting evidence for the acute stress response

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