Schizophrenia

cards on names of research

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  • Created by: rosa :)
  • Created on: 17-06-12 20:32

The Dopamiane Hypothesis

Drugs- amphedamines, chlorpromazine

Parkinsons- LDOPA

postmortems- Falkai

PET scans- Lindestroem

serotonine? - Naheed and green

Delay in effects

diathesis stress model- Zubin and spring

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Brain structure

Brown- brain weight and enlarged ventricles

anderson- Brain CAT scans

torrey-  15 times bigger

suddath- MZ twins

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socio cultural theory

Expressed Emotion-  Kalafi and torabi (iranien)

Double Bind

Season of birth- Pederson and Mortemson (density), Torrey (viral infections)

High Risk Children - Isrealie high risk study

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Cognitive

Brain abnormalities causes distubances in thinking which characterize schizphrenia, problems in filtering causing confsion

Hemsley's Model - Filtering incomming and sorted information, not knowing what to attend to (hippocampus)

Frith's Model- breakdown between conscious and preconscious information, they think they have to attend to preconscious material and dont register when a memory has come from their memory, not new incomming material, causing hallucinations (hippocampus and pre frontal cortex)

  • Bental - word lists
  • frith and done- cant generate many responces
  • myer lindenberg et al- link between poor working memory and cognitive functioning
  • scheikle et al- case study of a man who got hallucinations after developing a brain abcess
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clinical characteristics

key symptoms-

  • perception of reality
  • thinking
  • social skills
  • emotions

 onset-  women 50+ men 50- transition into adulthood

DSM and ICD

Positive and negative

subtypes

  • catatonic, paranoid, disorganised, undifferentiated, residual
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reliability

was criticised > APA president said it was reliable > klerman said it was reliable

Beck et al> concordence rate of 52% in 1962, but suddaman in '05 said it was 81%

Kappa scale  > maj et al 0.2 on scale > maj et al said SZ was the hardest to diagnose > Hasin said it is between 0.66 and 0.75 for a diagnosis

retrospective interviews

Cultural differences affecting reliability-  littlewood- black people are more likely to have a diagnosis changed > McGovern- cannabis psychosis is given to 27% african american and 1.2% white

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Validity

1.  similar disorders > schizoaffective, schizophrenaform

2. multiple symptoms > many symptoms under one catagory are we diagnosing the same thing?

3.differential diagnosis > temporal lobe epilepsy, drug induced psychosis

4. multiple diagnosis > negative schizophrenia or deppression and schizophrenia

5. cultural differences > Kim and Berrios, japan and stigma, inner cities and urban stress?, western more recognised, nijeria- evil spirits

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Genetics

  • runs in families> genetic link
  • 1st degree relative 6% whereas none is 1%
  • share 50% genes with 1st degree and only 25% with second
  • Kendler- 18 times more likely
  • Gottesman- as relatedness increases...
  • Kety Copenhagen high risk - 104 LR and 207 HR LR- 1.9% HR 16%
  • Twinstudies monozygotic and duyozygotic
  • Gottesman and shields 45000 > 57 pais, MZ 43% DZ was 9%
  • Cardno et al > MZ was 40% and DZ was 9%
  • Adoption studies
  • Heston et al - biological and adopted , none biological whereas 10.4% adopted
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drug therapy

Research

  • schooler- tested both
  • Marder and Meibach - tested both against a placebo
  • kane- 66% then a third on A typical
  • windgassen- 50% 18% 16% 16%
  • parkinsons
  • not negative symptoms
  • 30-70% imporve
  • into society
  • stabalize for psychological therapies
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ECT

How it works?

  • paralyse, anathesic to put them to sleep
  • electrode on tempal and forehead or above both tempals
  • electric current for 1-2 seconds
  • 3-4 sessions a week for a period of time then one every now and then to stop a relapse

Research

  • developped by Cerletti and Bini
  • Tharyan- only impoved half patiend symptoms and this was only short term
  • only 20% of people imporve even when combined with drugs
  • memory loss
  • high relapse rate
  • only when other drugs fail
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Psychological therapies

Cognative

  • Bech- cognitive reconstruction therapy
  • Ellis -(ABC) rational emotive behavioural therapy
  • Meichenbaum- self inoculation therapy
  • kingsington and turkington - 70% improve
  • chadwick 10 in 12 get better

humanistic

  • Rodgers- client centered therapy
  • Davison- Social skills therapy

Psychodynamic (freud and roth)

  • dream analysis, role play and free association - roth sullivan
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