Theory of differential association
Learn through verbal communication, intimate personal groups
Become a better criminal due to repeated contact with criminals, not inherited.
WIKSTROM AND TAFEL
Nearly 2000 student aged 14-15 from Peterborough
Cross-sectional study, interviews
Propensity induced (personality), lifestyle dependant (high risk lifestyle), situationaly limited (substance abuse)
YOCHELSON AND SAMENOW
255 Males, diverse range, only 30 completed.
Longitudinal, interviews, no control group.
52 thinking errors, showed criminals lie, thinking errors are not unique to criminals but more are displayed by them.
58 boys from Chicago aged 7, 10, 13 and 16.
2 hours interview with 10 dilemmas, aimed to support stages of moral development.
Supports stages, consistent across cultures, change from 6 to 5 stages.
GUDJOHNSSON AND BOWNES
80 criminals from northern Ireland. 20-violent crimes, 40-sexual offences, 20-property offences.
42 item blame attribution inventory (BAI), internal, external and guilt.
All offenders scored a higher mean BAI score for guilt. Cross validated with earlier studies.
BRUNNER ET AL
5 males, family in the Netherlands.
Urine samples, case study
Deficit of MAOA enzyme, X chromosome was affected by a point mutation; MAOA breaks down serotonin, not all males affected.
DALY AND WILSON
Secondary data (Police records, demographic).
Chicago, male, Correlation.
Strong negative (-0.88) with life expectancy and homicide rates.
Explanation: Parents do not show an interest as they also have a low life expectancy.
FARRINGTON ET AL
411 boys aged 8-9, schools in east London
Longitudinal study, interviews and criminal records
Persisters and Desisters, chronic offenders have young mums and disrupted families
BRUCE ET AL
EXP 1: 30 (15M 15F) staff and students Stirling uni, paid £2. 10 Celebrities, 40 composites, match. Whole and external 35%, Internal 19.5%.
EXP 2: 48 (21M 27F) Undergraduates. Photo line-up, select celeb to match composite. External 42%, Internal 24%. Suggests internal features do not work when trying to reconstruct a face.
LOFTUS ET AL
36 students, university of Washington 18-31 paid $3.50 or extra credit.
18 slides, control: cheque, Exp: gun. Questionnaire: 20 item multiple choice and identification with confidence scale.
Control 38.9% correct, Exp 11.1% correct, no difference in confidence.
FISHER ET AL
16 detectives, robbery division, Florida, minimum of 5 year experience.
Field experiment, record a selection of interviews 88. Half trained In CI, 7 completed, interviews recorded and all analysed by a team at California Uni blind to conditions.
Trained got 47% more info tan before and 63% more than untrained. CI takes longer.
MANN ET AL
99 Kent police officers (24F 75M mean age 34.3).
Detect lies in real life interviews 14 suspects showing head and torso, 54 clips (6-145 seconds), once finished their decision and confidence was given.
No difference in ability to detect truth or lies, cues to detect lies (gaze, contradiction), more experience better they were at detecting lies.
INBAU ET AL
1- Direct confrontation
2- Chance to shift blame
3- Not allowed to deny guilt
4- Ignore their reasons
5- Reinforce sincerity
6- Suspect cries infer guilt
7- Two choices both will be