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Turning to Crime
Upbringing refers to the treatment a child receives from its parents or carers throughout its childhood. Many
psychologists believe the type of upbringing an individual has affects the rest of his/her life, and therefore if a
child has a troubled upbringing it can then mean that the life he lives later is as troubled as his childhood.…read more

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Disrupted families
· Juby & Farrington
· A disrupted family is one suffering from death, divorce, separation or
· They way in which we are brought up is bound to have an impact on our
behaviour . Family, friends, teacher and general life experiences all
contribute to our upbringing and can aid our understanding of why people
turn to crime.
· Official statistics indicate there are areas in the country which have higher
crime rates. Does this mean that individuals brought up in these areas are
more likely to commit crime?
· Often convicted parents have convicted children…read more

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Disrupted families
· Juby & Farrington
Aim ­ to compare delinquency rates among boys living in permanently disrupted families at age
15 with delinquency rates among those living in intact families
Sample ­ 411 boys from 6 state schools in South London aged 8-9 at start of study in 1961
(temporal bias)
Method ­ prospective longitudinal study
Procedure ­ data collected on the parents of the boys and the boys themselves; juvenile
convictions, juvenile self-reported delinquency, and adult convictions ­ p's interviewed and
tested at school, in research office and in their homes ­ school testes measured individual
characteristics like intelligence and personality ­ parent interviews carried out annually from age
8 ­ 14/15 by a psychiatric social worker ­ parents reported family income, parenting practices
and family situation ­ teachers completed questionnaires to provide data on topics such as
truancy, aggressive behaviour and school behaviour ­ criminal records checked
Results ­ disrupted family= 34% adult convictions; loss of mother 62% and loss of father 25% -
intact family= 22%
Conclusion ­ disrupted family leads to an increased likelihood of criminal behaviour and
convictions, with the loss of a mother having more impact than a father…read more

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Learning from others
· Bandura ­ social learning theory ­ observation, imitation and reinforcement
1. Person observes a model carrying out a behaviour
2. Info about the behaviour is stored in the memory
3. Person may reproduce the behaviour in a similar setting
4. Behaviour can be reinforced by its consequences ­ positive or negative and
internal or external
· Applying it to a real life situation ­ a person may observe a peer commit a
crime such as shop lifting or burglary in their local area and then their friends
congratulate him and use the stolen good such as an Xbox (giving positive
reinforcement) ­ person commits a similar crime expecting the same type of
consequence but may in fact be caught and sentenced…read more

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Learning from others
· Bandura ­ social learning theory
Aim ­ to demonstrate that if children witness an aggressive display they are likely to imitate such behaviour when given the
Sample ­ 72 pupils from Stanford University Nursery School (36 boys and 36 girls)
Method ­ lab experiment
Design ­ matched pairs ­ matched in pre-existing aggressiveness by being observed in the nursery and judged on a 5 point scale
Procedure ­ 3 conditions; aggressive, non aggressive and control ­ aggressive and non ­aggressive groups were subdivided into
same sex model or opposite sex model meaning there's 3 IV's; sex of child, sex of role model and condition child was exposed to
Stage 1 ­ child sat in corner of room and exposed to their model ­ non-aggressive ignored Bobo and assembled tinker toys in a
subdued manner ­ aggressive played with Bobo doll in a distinctive aggressive manner e.g.. Punching it
Stage 2 ­ mild aggression arousal ­ child began playing with toys then told they were no longer allowed as these were reserved for
other children
Stage 3 ­ child left to play in a room and observed via one way mirror for 5 second intervals for 20 mins
Results ­ children exposed to aggressive model made more aggressive responses than non-aggressive ­ boys showed more
aggression than girls
Conclusion ­ supports Banduras social theory; aggression can be learn through observation and imitation ­ may explain why more
men commit crime than women ­ may be that observation of criminal behaviour with them receiving positive reinforcement may
lead to a person imitating such behaviour with the idea that its acceptable…read more

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Poverty & Disadvantaged neighbourhoods
· Farrington
· Living in poverty and in a disadvantaged neighbourhood such as having a low income and
attending a delinquent school increases the likelihood of a boy displaying criminal
· Coming from a disadvantaged neighbourhood may lead someone to turning to crime
due to the fact they may HAVE to participate in criminal behaviour just to stay alive.
People may steal food, clothes, items purely for survival on a day to day basis.
· There may be very little to do in the local area so children have no choice but to roam
the streets in order to occupy themselves, giving them more risk to the criminogenic
· The people they associate themselves with and 'friends' may also participate in dodgy
activities just to survive, or for fun. The child may then learn that this is acceptable
behaviour and partake in such activities aswell.
· There may be a 'want' to steal to gain nice possessions that their parents are unable to
provide their children with and pressure to fit in with the other children.…read more

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